57 terms

STAAR EOC WH The Persians, Greeks, and Romans 2

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Persia
grew large and powerfu l through military conquests, building good roads, collecting tribute, and tolerating differences among its subject peoples.
Cyrus the Great
expanded Persia's territory westward by conquering Lydia and Babylonia and eastward by conquering territories as
far as the Indus River.
Darius
unified the Persian Empire by building a
network of public roads, introducing a uniform
set of weights and measures, and establishing
several capital cities.
tribute
a payment made as a sign of submission
Zoroaster
Persian prophet who founded Zoroastrianism (circa 628-551 BC)
Zoroastrianism
dual gods of equal power to form early monotheism; Persian; cosmic struggle over good and bad; those that do good go to heaven and bad go to hell; influenced Judaism and Christianity
Persian Royal Road
major road of the Persian empire; it stretched from Lydia to Susa and allowed for the king to travel and communicate quickly with his empire.
GEOGRAPHY OF GREECE
consisted of a large mountainous peninsula, the islands of the Aegean Sea, and the coast of present-day Turkey
alphabet
a way of wri ting, invented by the Phoenicians
city-states
a city and its surrounding farmlands, with its own leaders and government
Zeus, Athena, and Apollo
Greek gods and goddess
Sparta
Greek city-state that was ruled by an oligarchy, focused on military, used slaves for agriculture, discouraged the arts
helots
peasants forced to stay on the land they worked
Citizens Assembly
The main governing body of the Athenian democracy was the _________ _______
ATHENS
Powerful city in Ancient Greece that was a leader in arts, sciences, philosophy, democracy and architecture.
democracy
means "rule of the people"
Women, foreigners, and slaves
could not participate in government in Ancient Athens
Pericles
Athenian leader noted for advancing democracy in Athens and for ordering the construction of the Parthenon.
Persian Empire
tried to conquer the Greek city-states
Socrates, Plato and Aristotle
Famous Greek philosophers, who believed that truth could be determined through rational thought and observation. Considered the fathers of rational thinking
Socrates
Greek philosopher; socratic method--questioning; sentenced to death for corrupting Athens youth
Aristotle
Student of Plato, tutor of Alexander the Great
Plato
Student of Socrates, wrote The Republic about the perfectly governed society
Parthenon
temple in Athens built to honor the goddess Athena
Acropolis
a large hill in ancient Greece where city residents sought shelter and safety in times of war and met to discuss community affairs
Eratosthenes
Greek mathematician and astronomer who estimated the circumference of the earth and the distances to the moon and sun (276-194 BC)
Archimedes
(287-212 BCE) Greek mathematician and inventor. He wrote works on plane and solid geometry, arithmetic, and mechanics. He is best known for the lever and pulley.
Herodotus and Thucydides
Greek historians
Sophocles
Greek writer of plays; used three actors; and made Oedipus Rex, and Antigone
Peloponnesian Wars
a war fought between Athens and Sparta in the 400s BC, ending in a victory for Sparta
Alexander the Great
Between 334 and 323 B.C.E. he conquered the Persian Empire, reached the Indus Valley, founded many Greek-style cities, and spread Greek culture across the Middle East.
Hellenistic Culture
Greek culture blended with Egyptian, Persian and Indian ideas, as a result of Alexander the Great's Empire.
GEOGRAPHY OF ROME
fertile plain in the center of Italy, close to the west coast
patricians
the wealthy class in Roman society; landowners
plebeians
Roman lower class, usually small farmers
republic
a system of government by representatives
Consuls
Two officials from the patrician class were appointed each year of the Roman Republic to supervise the government and command the armies
Senate
In ancient Rome, the supreme governing body, originally made up only of aristocrats/patricians
tribunes
An officer of ancient Rome elected by the plebeians to protect their rights from arbitrary acts of the patrician magistrates.
TWELVE TABLES
Rome's first code of laws; adopted in 450 B.C.
Carthage
fought with Rome in the Punic Wars, had the great general Hannibal but was later defeated
Julius Caesar
Roman general and dictator. He was murdered by a group of senators and his former friend Brutus who hoped to restore the normal running of the republic.
Caesar
Title of an ancient Roman Emperor
Augustus Caesar
The first empreror of Rome, the adopted son of Julius Caesar, help Rome come into Pax Romana, or the Age of Roman Peace
PAX ROMANA
A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.
Roman Roads
allowed for better military transportation and facilitated trade throughout their empire. Cities grew larger and more powerful. Appian Way, 53,000 miles make up all the Roman roads, User-contributed everyone could share supplies, 55,000miles of roads, communication, soldiers
gladiators
trained fighters, usually slaves, who fought in arenas as entertainment
Colosseum
a large amphitheater built in Rome around ad 70; site of the contest and combats between people and animals
JEWISH DIASPORA
when the jewish were driven from there homeland into exile
Christianity
a monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior
Jesus
Religious leader and founder of Christianity
Messiah
the awaited king of the Jews
Apostles
Followers associated most closely with Jesus
Emperor Constantine
founded Constantinople; best known for being the first Christian Roman Emperor; issued the Edit of Milan in 313, granting religious toleration throughout the empire
Huns
Nomadic people from Asia who attacked the Roman Empire.
Goths
One of a group of Germanic tribes who flooded into the Roman Empire and later revolted, weakening the empire.
Byzantine Empire
Eastern part of the Roman Empire that survived the fall of the western part