36 terms

STAAR EOC WH Chinese Dynasties and Indian Empires 3

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Aryans
nomads from Europe and Asia who migrated to India and finally settled; vedas from this time suggest beginning of caste system
Sanskrit
(Hinduism) an ancient language of India (the language of the Vedas and of Hinduism)
Hinduism
A religion and philosophy developed in ancient India, characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being who takes many forms
Reincarnation
belief that the individual soul is reborn in a different form after death
Karma
In Hindu belief, all the actions that affect a person's fate in the next life
Ganges River
important river in India considered sacred by Hindus
Upanishads and the Bhagavad-Gita
Two texts containing the major beliefs of Hindui sm
CASTE SYSTEM
A Hindu social class system that controlled every aspect of daily life
castes
social groups into which people are born and cannot change
social mobility
the ability to change social classes
Untouchables
performed the lowliest tasks, such as handling
dead bodies or sweeping streets
Siddhartha Gautama
founder of Buddism; born a prince; left his father's wealth to find the cause of human suffering; also know as Buddha
Buddha
means the enlightened one
Sutras
The sacred Buddhist texts.
Four Noble Truths
the central teachings of buddhism
Eightfold Path
in buddhism a set of guidelines on how to escape suffering
Nirvana
a condition of great peace or happiness
Chandragupta
founder of the Maurya empire.
Mauryan Empire
The first empire in India, founded by Chandragupta Maurya in 321 B.C.
Asoka
The grandson of Chandragupta, who is considered the best leader of the Mauryan Empire.
GUPTA EMPIRE
Golden Age of India; ruled through central government but allowed village power; restored Hinduism.
concept of zero
Developed by both the Maya and the Gupta, even though they developed separately.
decimal system
Numeric system based on ten. Created by mathematicians during the Gupta golden age in India.
dynasty
Ruling Family
ZHOU DYNASTY
displaced Shang Dynasty; alliances with regional princes and families (feudal system); overtook Yangtze River Valley (Middle Kingdom); invoked the "Mandate of Heaven"; Mandarin Chinese language; Confucious (philosopher)
Mandate of Heaven
The Chinese belief that the emperor claimed to be the "son of heaven" and therefore has the right to rule.
DYNASTIC CYCLE
rise and fall of Chinese dynasties according to the Mandate of Heaven
Confucius
philosopher who believed that social order, harmony and good government could be organized around 5 basic relationships
Taoism
was more interested In peace and inner stability for individuals
filial piety
Respect for parents
QIN DYNASTY
the Chinese dynasty (from 246 BC to 206 BC) that established the first centralized imperial government and built much of the Great Wall
Shih Huang-ti
1st emperor of China; ordered the Great Wall to be joined together as one
Great Wall of China
a fortification 1,500 miles long built across northern China in the 3rd century BC
HAN DYNASTY
imperial dynasty that ruled China and expanded its boundaries and developed its bureaucracy; remembered as one of the great eras of Chinese civilization
examination system
a system of selecting officials based on competitive written examinations
Silk Road
connected China, India, and the Middle East. Traded goods and helped to spread culture.
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