the monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran
Arabic word for God
the second holiest city; where Muhammad lived after fleeing Mecca
the journey of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622 which marked the beginning of the Muslim era
a holy war waged by Muslims against infidels
the holy book of islam
Five Pillars of Islam
true Muslims were expected to follow (principle of Salvation): belief in Allah, pray 5 times a day, giving of alms, fasting during Ramadan, pilgrimage to Mecca once in a lifetime
language of the Arabs
a supreme political and religious leader in a Muslim government
the land/territorial jurisdiction of a caliph
First hereditary dynasty of Muslim caliphs (661-750). From their capital at Damascus, the _________ruled an empire that extended from Spain to India. Overthrown by the Abbasid Caliphate.
Muslims that believe the caliph doesn't have to be related to Muhammad and should be chosen by the leaders of the Islamic community
a Muslim group that accepts only the descendants of Muhammad's son-in-law Ali as the true rulers of Islam
the chosen city by the Umayyad Caliphs in Syria to be their capital. they ruled from ad 661 to ad 750
dynasty that succeeded the Umayyads in 750; their capital was at Baghdad.
Capital of Abbasid dynasty located in Iraq
Golden Age of Muslim Culture
a period of great advances in culture and technology. Arab Muslims absorbed the cultural achievements of the Greeks, Persians, Romans, Jews and Byzantines.
A written number system created during the Gupta golden age in India, then adopted by the Islamic Empire before spreading further. Used throughout western civilization today.
mathematical advancement of Islamic Culture
he remains a hero to the Islamic world for uniting the Arabs and defeating the Crusaders in battle
Gold and salt made up trade and wealth in the African kingdoms because the Europeans wanted gold, and the Africans needed salt
grass lands that stretches across almost the entire width of Africa, from the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean
acted as a barrier that separated the peoples of Sub-Saharan Africa from the MeditelTanean world and the rest of Eurasia
Kingdom of Ghana
first of the great medieval trading empires of western Africa (7th - 13th century)., First of the great medieval trading empires of western Africa (7th - 13th century). Located in what is now southeastern Mauritania and part of Mali, it acted as intermediary between Arab and Berber salt traders to the north and gold and ivory producers to the south.
KINGDOM OF MALI
a medival West African state that became renounced for the wealth of its rulers, such as Mansa Musa
this Mali king brought Mali to its peak of power and wealth from 1312 the 1337; he was the most powerful king in west africa
thriving trading center on the Niger River.
Muslim who traveled the Muslim world in Africa, and recorded his journeys; impress by Mali's wealth
Kingdom of Songhai
became the largest of West Africa's tlu·ee trading kingdoms; expanded its trading networks as far as Europe and Asia; established an elaborate system of taxation and communications
Ife and Benin
kingdoms developed in the rainfo rests of West Africa. They became famous for their copper and bronze sculptures
was one of the best known of Africa's trading kingdoms. The existence of gold deposits near Zimbabwe was crucial to its rise. It traded gold, copper, and ivory
were arranged by families, and the groom paid a dowry to his bride's family