NCE Prep - Professional Orientation
Everything I need to know for the NCE exam
Terms in this set (84)
Autonomy (scenario based)
The ability to make independent decisions and avoid dependence in the counseling relationship.
Counselors see to foster self-determination in their relationships with clients and do not promote dependence. The standards of care that includes informed consent and client involvement in treatment plans and goals.
Beneficence (scenario based)
Do good and be a positive force with clients.
Counselors promote well-being and positive growth within their clients. This principle, which means to "do good," involves our commitment to do what is best and upholds positive mental health for our clients.
Counseling (scenario based)
A short-term intervention that assists individuals who are realatively psychologically healthy and are experiencing difficulties due to situations of living or develoopmental crises.
Duty to Warn (scenario based)
Based on Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California, Supreme Court of California, 1976, counselors must inform the threatened indivudal of a threat of potential harm. This is a California case and does not apply in all states.
Ethics (scenario based)
Morinciples adopted by an individual or group that describe certain rules of conduct. Aspirational ethics go beyond the prescribed degree of ethical behavior and by adhering to the highest level of ethical behavior.
Fidelity (scenario based)
Be truthful and honest with clients.
Codes pertaining to termination, referral, and abandonment.
Guidance (scenario based)
Originally the term used to describe the counseling profession, guidance is viewed more as preventitive in nature than counseling. The present description of guidance is attributed more to working with occupational and vocational issues and is directive in its approach with clients.
Justice (scenario based)
Be fair when working with clients.
Codes relating to fees, client acceptance, and respect for diversity.
Malfeasance (scenario based)
An act of wrongdoing committed under the authority of one's office.
Malpractice (scenario based)
Harm to a client due to negligence. It is a breach of professional duty by doing too little, too much, or by being wrong. Malpractice is a form of negligence while executing professional duties. ie misdiagnosis (failing to screen for suicide), not having the proper certification, and violation of confidentality. Most common sexual misconduct and violation of confidentality.
Negligence (scenario based)
A legal term that relates to standard of care and whether a counselor's actions would be considered reasonable given the standards of the counseling profession.
Non-malfeasance (scenario based)
Do no harm in working with clients.
Ethical standars required are dual relationships, privileged communication, and confidentality.
Privacy (scenario based)
American citizens have a constitutional right to choose what information about themselves they wish to share and what information they want to withhold from others.
Privileged communication (scenario based)
Protects clients from having their communications made public. It is the legal right of clients to have their communications kept private. "Confidentiality" is an ethich; "privileged communication" legally upholds confidentiality.
Professionalism (scenario based)
The attitude or manner of an individual that promotes an image and the ideals of a specific profession.
Tort (scenario based)
One party states that the negligent behavior of another has resulted in harm and requests compensation for the harm.
Why we need ethics:
*Ethical codes govern the behavior and the actions of a profession.
*The development and creation of ethical codes represent the maturity of a profession.
*Ethical codes protect the consumers of a specific profession.
*Ethical codes provide a framework for establishing an acceptable standard of care within a profession.
Six moral principles of the counseling profession:
Veracity (scenario based)
The need for truthfulness within the counseling relationship. Requires honesty with the client concerning issues of assessment results, informed consent, and treatment plans.
What code of ethics does the NBC follow?
ACA - American Counseling Association
A.2.a. Informed Consent
A client may choose to enter into or remain in the counseling relationship. Counselors explain the rights and responsibility of both the counselor and the client. Informed consent is always documented.
A.2.b. Types of Information Needed
Counselors explain the nature of all provided services including goals, techniques, procedures, limitations, potential risks, and benefits. Counselor relates his qualifications, credentials, experience, and plans for continuation of treatment after hsi death or incapacitation. Counselor ensures they client understands the implications of diagnosis, thte use of tests, fees, and billing arrangements. Cousnelors must explain that the client has the right to confidentality and its limits, ensure he knows he can obtain clear information about his records, and can participate in and refuse modality changes.
A.5.a. Current Clients
"Sexual or romantic cousenlro-client interactions or relationships with current clients, their romantic partners, or their family members are prohibited."
A.5.b. Former Clients
"Sexual or romantic counselor-client interactions or relationships with former clients, their romantic partners, or their family members are prohibited for a period of 5 years following the last professional contact." Even after the 5 year period, the counselor must document in writing the consequences of the relationship before the relationship begins.
A.7. Multiple Clients
A counselor with two or more related clients must clarify his relationship with each cleint at the beginning. If conflict exists, the counselor must clarify, adjust, or withdraw as appropriate.
Screens and selects group participants to ensure their goals and needs will not prevent the progress of the group or be detrimental to any client. (Harm to self or others)
A.8.b. Protecting Clients
Take reasonable precautions to keep clients from harm. (scapegoating).
A.10.a. Accpeting Fees from Agency Clients
Counselors refuse fees or renumeration (kick back) from clients who are entitled to services through the counselor's employer. The employer's policies apply. Clients are told of options for obtaining private counseling.
Counselors may barter if (1) it does not give the counselor an unfair advantage, (2) the client requests it, (3) and if this is an accepted community practice. Consider cultural concerns. Document all agreements. (Cannot do in Texas).
A.11.a. Abandonment Prohibited
Counselors make appropriate arrangements for clients during vacations and illnesses and following termination.
A.11.c. Appropriate Termination
Counselors terminate counseling when the client no longer needs assistance, does not benefit, or is being harmed. Reasons for termination include jeopardy to the counselor and nonpayment of fees. Counselors recommend alternative counseling. (Clients no longer benefiting may be a question).
B.2.a. Danger and Legal Requirements
Confidentiality requirements do not apply to all situations. It can be broken when disclosure is required to protect a person(s) from harm. State laws may require information to be revealed. Counselors consult with other professionals when in doubt. End-of-life issues may have special rules.
B.2.b. Contagious, Life-Threatening Diseases
Counselors confirm a client has a life-threatening disease before disclosing that information to identifiable third parties who may be at high risk. Counselors first ascertain the client's intentions toward disclosure.(HIV/AIDS)
B.2.c. Court-Ordered Disclosure
Counselors, when subpoenaed, obtain written permission for disclosure from the client.
B.2.d. Minimal Disclosure
If possible, inform clients before confidential information is disclosed. Only essential information is given.
Section C. Professional Responsiblity
Counselors are open, honest, and communicate accurately. They practice within the scope of their training and competence and abide by the ACA code of Ethics. Counselors seek to develop and improve counseling by participation in counseling associations. They advocate for removal of barriers to services and promote changes to improve the quality of life for clients. Counselors see to their own physical, spiritual, and psychological health. (Ethically obligated to take care of self.)
C.2.a. Boundaries of Competence
Counselors do not exceed the boundaries of their competence based on education, training, supervised experience, professional credentials, and experience. They seek knowledge, awareness, sensitivity, and skills for working with clients of different cultures and backgrounds. (Certification, Scope of practice - ie no experience with children, but do it anyway with no goal of learning.)
Counselors do not solicit testimonials. (Don't ask for testimonials for advertising.)
C.4.d. Implying Doctorial-Level Competence
A counselor does not use "Dr." unless he has a doctorial degree in counseling or a closely related field. "Dr." is not used when one has only a master's degree. (If you are a "Dr." in a field other they psychology you must specify your field on all documents).
D.2.a. Consult Competency
When service as counsultants, counselors ensure they have required resources and competencies. They provide referrals when requested.
D.2.b. Understanding Consultees
Consultants work with consultees to define problems, goals, and interventions.
D.2.c. Consultant Goals
Consultants encourage consultees to become self-directed through adaptability and growth.
D.2.d. Informed Consent in Consultation
Consultants review the rights and responsiblity of counselors and consultees in writing and verbally. They inform all parties of costs, services to be provided, potential risks and benefits, and limits of confidentality. Consultants define problems and goals.
E.1.b. Client Welfare
Counselors do not misuse assessment results and interpretations. Clients have the right to know results, interpretations, and bases for conclustions and recommendations.
E.3.a. Explanation to Clients
The counselors, in plain language, will inform the client of the purpose of an assessment instrument before its use. The client's cultural context is considered as well as the impact of the results.
E.3.b. Recipients of Results
Counselors consider the well-being of the client when giving assessment results.
E.5.b. Cultural Sensitivity
Clients' socio-economic and cultural enviornment are considered when making a diagnosis.
E.6.c. Culturally Diverse Populations
Counselors avoid using instruments that are not appropriate for the client. (ie. language barrier, education level.
Section F. Supervision, Training, and Teaching
Counselors have meaningful professional relationships. They maintain boundaries with supervisees and students. Counselors are fair, accurate, and honest in assessment of counselors-in-training.
F.1.a. Client welfare
Counseling supervisors monitor the services provide by other counselors or counselors-in-training, client welfare and supervisee performance. Sueprvisors meet regularly with supervisees.
F.1.b. Counselor Credentials
Counseling supervisors ensure clients know the qualification of the supervisees who provide service to the clients.
F.1.c. Informed Consent and Client Rights
Supervisors describe client's rights, the protection of client privancy, and confidentality to supervisees. Supervisees tell clients who will have access to records.
F.2.a. Supervisor Pereparation
Counselros are trained in supervision techniques before offering clinical supervision services. They continue their education in counseling and supervision techniques.
F.2.b. Multicultural Issues/Deversity in Supervision
Counseling supervisors are responsive to multiculturalism and diversity.
F.3.a. Relationship Boundaries with Supervisees
Counseling supervisors do not enage in nonprofessional interaction which will compromise the supervisory relationship.
F.3.b. Sexual Relationships
Sexual or romantic relationships are prohibited.
F.3.c. Sexual Harassement
Supervisors don't sexually harass.
F.3.d. Close Relatives and Friends
These are not accepted as supervisees.
F.3.e. Potentially Beneficial Realtionships
When a relationship other than supervisor/supervisee is considered by the supervisor, he should consider all the ramifications. Some relatinships may be beneficial, such as attending a formal ceremony or making a hosptial visit. All potential actions are discussed with the supervisee and documented by the supervisor.
F.4.a. Informed Consent for Supervision
The supervisor is responsible ensuring the supervisee undestands the principle of informed consent.
F.4.b. Emergencies and Absences
Supervisors ensure supervisees have a method of making contact with them or alternative on-call supervisors.
F.4.c. Standards for Supervisees
Supervisors ensure supervisees are aware of professional and ethical standards and legal responsibilities.
F.4.d. Termination of the Sueprvisory Relationship
Both supervisor and supervisees may terminate the relationship with adequate notice. Reasons are given.
Supervisors document ongoing apprasials and schedule periodic formal evaltuations during hte supervisory relationship.
Supervisors assist supervisees in securing remedial assistance when needed. Supervisors document all decisions and ensure that supervisees know of options availble to them to address negative decisions.
F.5.c. Counseling for Supervisees
Counselors do not counsel supervisees but give them several referrals.
F.6.a. Counselor Educators
Skilled as teachers and practitioners, they are knowledgeable in the aspects of counseling and make supervisees and students aware of their responsibilities.
F.6.b. Infusing Multicultural Issues/Diversity
Counselor educators ensure multiculturalism and diversity are included in courses and workshops.
F.6.c. Intergration of Study and Practice.
Education and training programs intergrate academic study and supervised practice.
F.6.d. Teaching Ethics
Counselor educators infuse ethical training and knowledge of standards and responsbilities throughout the curriculum.
F.6.e. Peer Relationships
Students and supervisees have the same ethical obligations as educators, trainers, and supervisors.
F.6.f. Innovative Theories and Techniques
Techniques and procedures that are proven or without an empirical foundnation are labled as unproven or developing. Risks are explained.
F.6.g. Field Placements
Roles and responsiblities of student, supervisee, site supervisor, and program supervisor are clearly defined.
F.6.h. Professional Disclosure
Counselors-in-training disclose they are students and explain the limits of confidentiality. Client permission is obtained before any information is used.
Section G. Research and Publication
APA standards for publication
G.5.g. Duplicate Submission
Submit a manuscript to only one journal at a time. When an article is republished, the original author or publisher must give permission for republication and be given acknowledgement.
Section H. Resolving Ethical Issues
Counselors hold other counselors to the same legal, ethical, and more conduct they possess and take appropriate action to uphold standards. Ethical delemmas are resolved with direct, open communication. Collegues and supervisors are consulted as necessary. Counselors pursue professioinal development in ethical and legal issues.
H.2.c. Reporting Ethical Violations
If an apparent violation is not resolved informally and is likely to cause harm, counselors take action appropriate to the situation. This may be referral to state or national committees on professional ethics, licensing boards or institutions. If confidentiality rights would be violated, this standard does not apply. It does not apply when a counselor has been hired to review the work of an apparently unethical counselor.
Brown, Pryzwansky & Schulte's (2001) Stages (of Consulation)
Formative (during) evaluation takes place during plan implementation. Summative (summary) evaluation takes place after consultation has been completed (ie. What did you think of your program?)
The Adlerian Consultation
Based on Adlerian principles and is commonly used in a school environment. It has not been widely researched.
1. An assumption of this model is that children's misguided behavior is the result of discouragement; manifested in behavior with one or more of four goals: attention, power, revenge, or withdrawal. Encouragement supressing belief that a person has worth that is not tied to his accomplishments, counteracts discouragement.
The Adlerian Consultation
2. The principles of encouragement are
separation of the actor from the act
effort is more important than outcome
present functioning is more important than past performance
intrinsic motivastion rather than extrinsic motivation
recognizing the importance of the individual for his/her own sake
The Adlerian Consultation
3. Diagnosing the problem requires understanding the client's internal frame of reference, not just observing his behavior. The consultee's feelings in reaction to the client are used to make a diagnosis. Clients may be asked fanciful questions to help diagnose their guiding fictions.
The Adlerian Consultation
4. Intervention strategies include taking advantage of natural consequences (adminstered by the enviornment) and logical consequences (administered by a person).
Lewin's Change Theory (1952)
The phases of planned organizational change are:
Unfreezing - preparing a system for change,
Changing - making changes to the system, and
Refreezing - stabilizing the system after the change.