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Pharmacology NCLEX Review Part 2
Terms in this set (21)
USES: Estrogen replacement therapy/hormone replacement therapy (HRT) commonly indicated with primary ovarian failure, menopause and post- hysterectomy.
Other uses include: palliative treatment of breast cancer, osteoporosis, prevention of post- partum lactation and dysmenorrhea.
Combined with progesterone for oral contraception and often given in combination form for HRT.
EXAMPLES: Premarin (conjugated estrogen), Estraderm (estradiol transdermal), Prempro (Estrogen/Progesterone Combination)
Uses: Treatment of fibroids, uterine cancer, endometriosis, amenorrhea, uterine bleeding d/t hormone imbalance and the treatment of premenstrual syndrome (PMS).
Also used for preventing a threatened miscarriage. Combined with estrogen for oral contraception and often given in combination form for HRT. Examples: Megestrol (Megace), Medroxyprogesterone (Depo-Provera)
Prempro (Estrogen/Progesterone Combination)
Oxytocin (Pitocin, Syntocinon)
Uterine stimulant. Uses: Labor induction, postpartum uterine atony and hemorrhage.
Uterine stimulant. Uses: Postpartum uterine atony and hemorrhage.
Uterine relaxant. Use: Cessation of preterm labor.
Finasteride (Propecia, Proscar) and Dutasteride (Avodart)
Uses: Benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) and to decrease PSA levels.. Finasteride only: Male pattern baldness. In women hirsutism, polycystic ovarian disease. Depresses level of prostate specific antigen (PSA)
Testosterone (Depo-testosterone) and Testosterone, transdermal (AndroGel, Testoderm)
Uses: Delayed puberty, Male hypogonadism, Metastatic breast cancer
Vardenafil (Levitra), Sildenafil (Viagra), Tadalfil (Cialis)
Enhances blood flow to the corpus cavernous to ensure erection to allow sexual intercourse. Uses: Erectile Dysfunction. Contraindicated in patients taking nitrates or patients with severe cardiac disease.
Antineoplastic. Interferes with rapidly reproducing cell DNA. Examples: Nitrogen mustards- Chlorambucil (Leukeran) Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan, Neosar) Bendamustine (Treanda). Nitrosoureas- Carmustine (BiCNU, Gliadel). Miscellaneous Alkylating Agents- Oxaliplatin (Eloxatin) Cisplatin (Platinol) Carboplatin (Paraplatin)
Closely resembles normal metabolites, "counterfeits" fool cells; cell division halted. Examples: Methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall), Flouracil (5-FU, Adrucil, Carac, Efudex), Cytarabine, Pemetrexed, Mercaptopurine. With Methotrexate administration, Leucovorin is given to decrease the toxic effects of Methotrexate (Leucovorin Rescue Therapy).
Interferes with DNA and RNA synthesis. Examples: Bleomycin (Blenoxane), Doxorubicin (Adriamycin, Rubex) Dactinomycin. Cardiotoxicity associated with many of the agents in this class.
Hormones and Hormone Antagonists
Used in breast cancer and prostate cancer. These agents are not cytotoxic and produce few severe adverse effects. Hormones
Dexamethasone (Decadron) Medroxyprogesterone (Provera,
Prednisone (Deltasone) Testosterone (Andro, Histerone)
Leuprolide (Eligard, Lupron, Viadur)
Raloxifene (Evista) Tamoxifen (Nolvadex) Anastrozole (Arimidex)
Vinca Alkaloids (Plant Alkaloids)
Interferes with cell division. (They bind to proteins of the mitotic spindle and lead to metaphase arrest). Examples: Vincristine (Oncovin) Vinblastine (Velban) Paclitaxel (Taxol). Neurotoxicity is associated with plant alkaloids. Allopurinol given to increase excretion and decrease buildup of urates (uric acid)
Biologic Response Modifiers - BRMs (Immunostimulants)
Interferon alfa-2 (Roferon-A, Intron A)
Epoetin-alfa (PRocrit) Aldesleukin (Proleukin)
Antibiotic/Anti-infective. Bactericidal. Inhibits protein synthesis of many Gram-negative bacteria. Examples: Gentamicin (Garamycin) Tobramycin (Nebcin) Neomycin, Amikacin (Amikin), Streptomycin. Can cause irreversible Ototoxicity, Nephrotoxicity. (most end in -mycin)
Antibiotic/Anti-infective. Bactericidal. Inhibits synthesis of bacterial cell wall. Examples: 1st Generation- Cefazolin (Ancef, Kefzol), Cephalexin (Keflex); 2nd Generation- Cefaclor (Ceclor), Cefoxitin (Mefoxin), Cefprozil (Cefzil); 3rd Generation-Cefatoxamine (Claforan), Ceftriaxone (Rocephin), Cefpodoxime (Vantin); 4th Generation- Cefepime (Maxipime). Only 3rd and 4th generation can achieve CSF concentrations sufficient for bactericidal effects, so they are used for meningitis.
Antibiotic/Anti-infective. Bacteriostatic, bactericidal; binds to cell membrane and causes changes in protein function. Examples: Azithromycin (Zithromax, Z-Pak) Clarithromycin (Biaxin) Erythromycin (Erythrocin). Administer on an empty stomach, destroyed by gastric acids and acidic fruit juice.
Antibiotic/Anti-infective. Bactericidal. Inhibits synthesis of cell wall of sensitive organisms. Examples: Penicillin G (Bicillin), Penicillin V (Pen VK), Nafcillin, Oxacillin, Ampicillin (Principe), Amoxicillin (Amoxil, Trimox), Ampicillin/Sulbactam (Unasyn),
Ticarcillin (Ticar), Peperacillin/Tazobactam
Antibiotic/Anti-infective. Bactericidal. Interferes with DNA replication in Gram-negative bacteria. Examples: Ciprofloxacin (Cipro, Septra) Gatifloxacin (Tequin, Zymar) Levofloxacin (Levaquin) Moxifloxacin (Avelox). Generally not used as a first-line antibiotic. Antacids, mineral supplements and multivitamin interfere with absorption up to 90% when given together
Bacteriostatic; competitively antagonize paraminobenzoic acid, essential component of folic acid synthesis, causing cell death. Examples: Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole
(Bactrim, Septra) Sulfisoxazole (Gantrisin) Sulfisoxasole/Erythromycin (Pediazole)
Silver Sulfadiazine (Silvadene) **Topical form
Sulfacetemide (Cetamide) **Opthalmic drops. Protect from exposure to light (sunscreen, protective clothing).
Bacteriostatic; inhibits protein synthesis of susceptible bacteria. Examples: Doxycycline (Vibramycin) Tetracycline (Sumycin) Tigecycline (Tygacil). Contraindicated during pregnancy, lactation and children < 8 years (May cause permanent staining of teeth and/or delayed bone growth).
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Pharmacology NCLEX review Part 1
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