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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
APUSH Period 1 (1491-1607)
Terms in this set (15)
An exchange of goods, ideas and skills from the Old World (Europe, Asia and Africa) to the New World (North and South America) and vice versa.
A grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it
Atlantic slave trade
Lasted from 16th century until the 19th century. Trade of African peoples from Western Africa to the Americas. 98% of Africans were sent to the Caribbean, South and Central America.
Bartolome de las Casas
First bishop of Chiapas, in southern Mexico. He devoted most of his life to protecting Amerindian peoples from exploitation. His major achievement was the New Laws of 1542, which limited the ability of Spanish settlers to compel Amerindians to labor; however his suggestion to replace Natives with Africans was won he would regret.
•Began building communities 700 years before Columbus
•Cultivated crops: corn, beans, squash, chilies
•Developed Chaco Canyon as a trade and ceremonial-religious network
•After a long drought in the early 1100s, they abandoned Chaco Canyon
•Descendants created small farming communities across the Southwest
•By 1300, the Anasazi abandoned Mesa Verde
Mesoamerican civilization concentrated in Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula and in Guatemala and Honduras but never unified into a single empire. Major contributions were in mathematics, astronomy, and development of the calendar.
(1200-1521) 1300, they settled in the valley of Mexico. Grew corn. Engaged in frequent warfare to conquer others of the region. Worshipped many gods (polytheistic). Believed the sun god needed human blood to continue his journeys across the sky. Practiced human sacrifices and those sacrificed were captured warriors from other tribes and those who volunteered for the honor.
Their empire stretched from what is today Ecuador to central Chili in the Andes Mountain region of South America. Called the Children of the Sun.
Bering Land Bridge
a. A land bridge that was created when the ice age came.
b. It lowered the sea levels, creating large glaciers.
c. The lower sea level created a land mass, known as the Bering Strait, which connected Eurasia to America.
The Bering Strait was then engulfed by the rising seas levels (due to/ at the end of the ice age).
•Aka Mound Builders
•Flourishing culture between 900-1350
•Women farmed, men hunted
•In 1453, Muslim Ottoman Turks conquered the city of Constantinople
•Controlled the eastern Mediterranean for the next 4 centuries
•Had been at the crossroads of the trade routes between Europe and Asia
•Christian Europe was cut off from the lucrative land-based trade in spices and luxury goods with Asia that had existed since the late 1200s
•Other Europeans began to seek new ways to reach Asia
the unification and rise of Spain
•Political, cultural, and religious unification of Spain was an extraordinary development given the 7 centuries during which unity of any sort had seemed impossible
•In 711, Muslim invaders from North Africa conquered most of the Iberian Peninsula and remained in control of parts of it for almost 800 years
•By 1400, the Iberian Peninsula was divided into 4 Christian kingdoms
The effort by Christian leaders to drive the Muslims out of Spain, lasting from the 1100s until 1492.
•Columbus took some of the Indians as captives, he wanted to teach them Spanish and show them to his sponsors in Spain
•Columbus sailed to Cuba and Hispaniola in search of gold
•When he did not find gold, he built a fort and left part of his crew there with instructions to search for gold enter in January 1493, Columbus, with six Indian prisoners, turned back to Spain
•Columbus thought he had reached an unknown part of Asia, perhaps Japan or Korea
•Columbus exaggerated his findings, Isabella and Ferdinand gave him 17 ships and 1,200 men for a second voyage to seek slaves and gold in the supposed part of Asia
•When he arrived back on Hispaniola in 1494, Columbus found that the native residents had killed the sailors he had left behind in 1492
•As word spread of the harsh ways of the Europeans, the Indians became less friendly
•The Caribbean had little gold despite Columbus's efforts to force the natives to find it, and many Indians died from Spanish swords or from forced labor that the Spanish instituted
•During his third voyage to the Caribbean in 1498, he tried to set up a government at Hispaniola, but many Spaniards complained about hard lives there with little reward-a new governor sent Columbus back to Spain in chains, although the Spanish monarchs forgave him and allowed him a fourth voyage in 1502, he never governed again
a major 16th century European movement aimed initially at reforming the beliefs and practices of the Roman Catholic Church. Its religious aspects were supplemented by ambitious political rulers who wanted to extend their power and control at the expense of the Church.
•By the 1580s, warfare in piracy became the dominant role of the English who visited the Americas, building settlements at the time was not a priority
•Francis Drake was probably the most famous privateer
•The role of this piracy was instrumental in laying a foundation for English seapower
•Drake's voyage around the globe from 1577 to 1580 was the first expedition to survive
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