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TEAS 6 Science
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Terms in this set (196)
Muscles involved in inhalation and do they expand or contract?
Intercostals and diaphragm contract
Part of brain that monitors CO2 to regulate breathing
Two main functions of nucleolus
Protein synthesis, synthesis and storage of RNA
Function of ribosomes
Synthesize proteins from RNA
Golgi complex function
Synthesizes materials such as proteins that are transported out of the cell
transport system of cell
Production of cell energy; cell signaling; cellular differentiation; cell cycle and growth regulation
Events of prophase
chromatin thickens into chromosomes; nuclear membrane begins to disintegrate; pairs of centrioles move to opp sides of cell and spindle fibers form; mitotic spindle starts to move chromosomes around
bone, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, fat, blood, lymph
Hyperventilation does what to pH?
Increases blood pH during acidosis; slowing breathing during alkalosis will decrease pH
How much blood in adult human?
Composition of blood
First diastole: blood flows from sup and inf vena cavae to right atrium through open AV/tricuspid valve. SA node of right atrium contracts to fill R ventricle w blood. Impulse transmitted through AV node, R ventricle contracts and initiates first systole. Tricuspid valve closes, pulmonary semilunar opens. Blood pumped from pulmonary arteries to lungs. Blood from lungs fills L atrium during second diastole. SA node triggers mitral valve to open, blood fills left ventricle. During second systole, mitral valve closes and L ventricle contracts, blood pumped from aorta to rest of body.
Lymph vascular system functions
Return of excess fluid to blood; return of proteins from capillaries; transport of fats from digestive tract; disposal of debris and cellular waste
Thymosin promotes Tcell formation, T cells mature here
Lymphoid organs include
adenoids, tonsils, spleen, thymus, appendix, lymph nodes, patches in small intestine
filter unwanted materials from blood, including old RBCs; help fight infection by filtering pathogens.
IGF-1, bile, angiotensinogen, thrombopoietin, hepciden, betatrophon, cytochrome p450. Production of cholesterol; storage of excess glucose in form of glycogen; regulation of amino acids; processing of hemoglobin; conversion of ammonia to urea; purification of blood; regulation of blood clotting; controlling infection via boosting immune factors and removing bacteria. Bill's putt putt golf closed
Increases the absorption of fats, aids abs of vitamins A, D, E, and K. Route of excretion for bilirubin, a byproduct of red blood cells recycled by the liver
Blood for liver to metabolize
O2 for liver
Bile released from
Common hepatic duct
Breaks down fats; secreted by mouth and pancreas
Cells of stomach
Pareietal cells: HCl; Chief cells: pepsinogen; Mucus cells
Protein; chief cells of stomach secrete as pepsinogen, activated by HCl
Steroid endocrine hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid (HCl) by the parietal cells of the stomach and aids in gastric motility. It is released by G cells in the stomach, duodenum, and the pancreas. Decrease in pH causes negative feedback on gastrin production
Hunger hormone secreted by empty stomach
Released from duodenum, digestive hormone that stimulates the pancreas to release bicarbonate to neutralize acid in duodenum.
Secreted by S cells of pancreas. Inhibits glucagon release and pancreatic exocrine secretions
CCK. Following the ingestion of a fatty meal, secreted by the duodenal mucosa to stimulate contraction of the gallbladder to increase release of bile
Secreted by small intenstine. Stimulates gastric motility, stimulates pepsin production, improves peristalsis.
Brush border enzymes
Assist in digestion of carbohydrates and proteins in the small intestine; activate enzymes; break down small peptides into a.a.s in the small intestine. Includes proteases, lactase, disaccharidases, nucleosidases
Small intestine function
enzymes from pancreas, stomach, and liver transported here to aid digestion. Bile breaks down fat, stored in gall bladder. Carbs, nucleic acids and proteins also digested. Duodenum, jejunum, ileum.
From stomach: HCl, chyme. From liver/gallbladder: bile. Pancreas: 5 enzymes. From duodenum: brush border enzymes- maltase, sucrase-isomaltase, lactase, peptidases. Hormones: secretin, cholecystokinin, gastric inhibitory peptide, motilin, bicarb.
Exocrine tissue secretes digestive enzymes via pancreatic duct, connected to common bile duct near duodenum. Trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, amylase, lipase, bicarbonate
Secreted by the duodenum, converts trypsinogen into trypsin, allows it to digest protein
medulla oblongata, cerebellum, pons
integrates sensory signals and orchestrates response
cerebrum, thalamus, hypothalamus
short term and working memory, info processing, decision making, planning, judgment
Sensory input, spatial positioning of body
Visual input, processing, and output
Auditory input, processing, and output
Execution of skilled motor movement, balance and coordination
Interprets sensory information; higher thought and action. Two hemis connected by corpus callosum, four lobes.
midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata. Regulates respiratory, digestive, and circulatory functions
Message and relay center, connects cortex and cerebellum. Sleep.
Part of the limbic system, in each temporal lobe
Function: Responsible for processing of long term memory and emotional responses
Autonomic activities such as breathing, swallowing and heart rate
Part of Limbic System, at the end of the hippocampus. Responsible for the response and memory of emotions, especially fear
Part of the forebrain, below the corpus callosum
Function: Responsible for relaying information from the sensory receptors to proper areas of the brain where it can be processed
Autonomic nervous system
Maintains homeostasis. Sympathetic: flight or fight. HR, resp, sdrenalin up; slows digestions, dilates pupils. Parasympathetic: rest and digest.
Somatic nervous system
Voluntary movements and reflex arc. Sensory receptor - afferent neuron - interneuron in spinal cord - motor neuron - effector (muscle)
Excitability, contraction, elongation
voluntary, striated, long bundles
Involuntary, shorter and wider, non striated
Involuntary, striated, intercalated discs
Skeletal muscle contraction
Muscle fiber contains bundle of myofibrils, composed of sarcomeres. WHen AP reaches fiber, CA ions released, bind to myosin heads. Thin actin filaments slide over thick myosin filaments, shortening sarcomere. Energy provided by ATP.
Secreted by AP. Stimulates spermatogenesis in men, follicle growth in women
LH in men
Secreted by AP. Stimulates testosterone production, ovulation, estrogen secretion.
Where are sperm produced and stored?
Seminiferous tubules, epididymis
Produce a sugary fluid that provide energy for the sperm
Produces an alkaline fluid to help buffer the acidic pH int the vagina and produces antibiotics.
Produce mucus that acts as a lubricant in the urethra.
FSH promotes the development of a follicle that secretes estrogen. An estrogen spikes leads to a surge in LG and ovulation around day 14 in the 28 day cycles.
LH promotes the development of the corpus luteum that functions to secrete progesterone. When pregnancy does not occur, menstruation occurs.
Day 1-5 of uterine cycle
Low level of estrogen and progesterone causing the endometrium to disintegrate and menstruation occurs.
Day 6-13 of uterine cycle
Proliferative phase. Increase in estrogen causing the endometrium to thicken.
Day 14 uterine cycle
Day 15-28 of uterine cycle
Secretory phase. Incease in progesterone causes endometrium to 2x or 3x in thickness in prep for the developing embryo. If the egg is not fertilized then the corpus luteum regresses and the endometrium breaks down.
secrete steroid hormones - estrogen and Progesterone
Secreted by ovaries, stimulates growth of female sex organs, causes LH surge
Secreted by ovaries, prepares and maintains uterus for pregnancy
Secretes HCG, estrogen (enlargement of mother's sex organs, stimulates prolactin secretion), and progesterone during pregnancy
Released by placenta; promotes the maintenance of the corpus luteum during beginning of pregnancy, which secretes progesterone during the first trimester. Progesterone enriches the uterus with a thick lining of blood vessels and capillaries so that it can sustain the growing fetus
Layers of skin
Epidermis: no BVs; bottom is stratum basale. Dermis: connective tissue, BVs, sensory receptors, hair follicles, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, elastin and collagen fibers. Hypodermis: subcutaneous layer, not actually skin; connective tissue binds skin to muscles; fat deposits here.
Controlled by hypothalamus. Effectors: sweat glands, BVs, muscles (shivering).
Eccrine: not connected to hair follicles, activated by elevated body temp; secrete NaCl, K, bicarb, glucose, antimicrobial peptides.
Apocrine: Activated by stress; oily sol'n of fatty acids, triglycerides, and proteins. Located armpits, groin, palms and soles.
Endocrine functions of pancreas
Islets of Langerhans: beta cells produce insulin, alpha cells release glucagon. Insulin lowers blood sugar, affects fat metabolism and fat storage by liver. Glucagon raises blood sugar by stimulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in liver.
Released by beta cells of pancreas when blood levels of carb/proteins are high, lower blood sugar.
-stimulates glycolysis and glycogenesis
-lowers blood glucose levels
Raises blood sugar by stimulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in liver.
Adam's apple. Regulates metabolism, growth and development. Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) increase metabolism, stimulate release of energy from cells. Calcitonin moves Ca from blood to bone by decreasing osteoclast activity when blood levels of Ca are high.
Parathyroid hormone increases blood calcium by moving Ca from bone to blood. Ca involved in muscle contraction, bone growth.
Immune response. Also serves as maturation chamber for immature T cells formed in bone marrow.
Adrenal corticosteroids: cortisol and aldosterone. monitors blood sugar; aids in lipid and protein metabolism
Stimulates the epithelial cells in the distal tubule and collecting ducts of the kidneys to increase re-absorption of sodium (reduces Na+ secretion and increases K+ secretion) and water, leading to raised blood volume and raised blood pressure. Mineralocorticoid.
Stress hormone, increase blood sugar by stimulating gluconeogenesis in liver, and reduces inflammation and immunity. Major glucocorticoid.
Tyrosine-derived catecholamines, act like steroids: epinephrine (adrenalin) and norepinephrine. Flight or flight response. Controls cardiac function; raises blood sugar and controls size of BVs
-secreted by adrenal medulla
-stimulates sympathetic actions
-vasoconstriction of internal organs and skin
-vasodilation of skeletal muscle
-promotes glycogen breakdown
Same as epinephrine.
well-being and happiness
Released by motor neurons to activate muscle movement
Aldosterone major example
Pinched off portion of cell contains secretion
influences daily biorhythms and sexual activity; secretes melatonin
A neural structure in forbrain below the thalamus; directs eating, drinking, body temperature, linked to emotion. Funnels signals from NS to pituitary gland: control center of endocrine system. Produces ADH and oxytocin, GnRH, CRH, TRH, GHRH, PIF to act on anterior pituitary
HT. Prolactin-inhibitory factor, constantly released from hypothalamus; when stops being produced, stimulates AP to produce prolactin
Peptide hormone secreted by hypothalamus, acts on pituitary gland to cause it to release FSH and LH
HT. Corticotropin-releasing hormone, stimulates AP to release ACTH
HT. Thyroid-releasing hormone, stimulates AP to release TSH
Master gland. Directs thyroid. PP: stores ADH (aka vasopressin) and oxytocin made by hypothalamus. AP: FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH; Prolactin, GH. FLAT PEG: Flat stimulate other endocrine glands, Peg are direct hormones
Made by HT, released by PP. Peptide. Stimulates contractions during labor, increases production of prostaglandins which increase labor even more. Simulates release of milk, positive feedback with suckling.
Made of lipids: cholesterol. Easily pass through cell MB unlike protein hormones, so have receptors inside cell. Cortisol, aldosterone, sex hormones.
Released from AP, acts on long bones, muscles to stimulate growth, mobilizes fat stores.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone. Released from AP, stimulates adrenal gland to release glucocorticoids via second messenger system.
Released from AP, stimulates thyroid to release its hormones. Peptide.
Aka eccrine. Secretions via exocytosis
Cell destroyed to secrete
Made by HT, released by PP. Regulates fluid volume by acting on kidneys to reabsorb more water at collecting duct. Secretion stimulated by stretch receptors in kidneys, heart and large arteries. Increases BP.
Glomerular filtrate enters PCT: water, glucose, ions, other organic molecules reabsorbed into bloodstream. DCT: urea and drugs removed; pH of blood adjusted by secretion of hydrogen ions. Regulation of BP. Limited gluconeogenesis. Secretes EPO to stimulate erythropoiesis when O2 is low. +++According to TEAS does not secrete enzymes.
Urine collects here before moving to ureter
Enzyme that upregulates arterial blood pressure, secreted by kidneys in response to stretch receptors
JG cells (low BP) produce renin, sympathetic nerves, and macula densa cells (low salt --> release prostaglandins) of the kidney stimulate JG cells to release renin. The renin enzyme circulates in BS and hydrolyzes angiotensinogen secreted from the liver into the peptide angiotensin I.
Angiotensin I is further cleaved in the lungs by endothelial-bound angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) into angiotensin II, the most vasoactive peptide. Angiotensin II is a potent constrictor of all BVs. It acts on the smooth muscle and raises the resistance posed by these arteries to the heart. The heart, trying to overcome this increase in its 'load', works more vigorously, causing the blood pressure to rise. Angiotensin II also acts on the adrenal glands and releases aldosterone, which stimulates the epithelial cells in the distal tubule and collecting ducts of the kidneys to increase re-absorption of sodium, exchanging with potassium to maintain electrochemical neutrality, and water, leading to raised blood volume and raised blood pressure. The RAAS also acts on the CNS to increase water intake by stimulating thirst, as well as conserving blood volume, by reducing urinary loss through the secretion of ADH (vasopressin) from the posterior pituitary gland.
A ball of capillaries surrounded by Bowman's capsule in the nephron and serving as the site of filtration in the vertebrate kidney.
Naturally acquired active immunity occurs when the person is exposed to a live pathogen, develops the disease, and becomes immune as a result of the primary immune response.
Naturally acquired passive immunity occurs during pregnancy, in which certain antibodies are passed from the maternal into the fetal bloodstream
Found in organs. Larger than neurtophils, produced in BM as monocytes, long lived. Pick up and ingest foreign materials and present these antigens to other cells of the immune system such as lymphocytes like T cells and B cell
Produced by liver. Group of proteins in blood serum and plasma that enhances (complements) the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from an organism, promotes inflammation, and attacks the pathogen's plasma membrane.
T helper cells: secretion of cytokines that activate other white blood cells to fight off infection
T killer/suppressor: directly kill certain tumor cells, viral-infected cells and sometimes parasites; also important in down-regulation of immune responses
have antibodies that bind to specific antigens in the pathogen
Natural killer cells
Kill certain tumors such as melanomas, lymphomas and viral-infected cells; no conference in lymphoid organs
Present antigens to T cells or lymphoid organs
Production of antibodies in response to antigens of bacteria, viruses, and tumor cells. Permanent immunity.
Granulocytes or Polymorphonuclear (PMN) Leukocytes
Neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils; phagocytes that engulf and digest bacteria and parasites
Neutrophils: short-lived, quick response
Eosinophils: large, long-lived, defeat multicellular invaders
Basophils: alert body of invasion
Macrophage engulfs invader, joined by helper T cell, presents an antigen on its cell surface to a B cell or killer T cell, the B cell is signaled to proliferate into memory cells and plasma cells. Plasma cells produce specific antibodies, which mark pathogens for destruction. Memory cells remain in bloodstream. Killer T cells search and destroy.
Glucose converted to 2 pyruvate, 2 NADH & 2 ATP, used to make more ATP and NADH. In cytosol.
Pyruvic acid cycle/oxidation
In mitochondrial matrix, pyruvic acid converted to acetyl CoA, 2 NADH, CO2, goes to citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation
Electron transport chain. In mito matrix. NADH & FADH2 produces H+ ions, water and ATP. Requires O2. Passes electrons to ETC/OP.
Citric acid cycle
AKA Kreb's cycle. In matrix, acetyl CoA produces 2 ATP, 2CO2, 6 NADH, 2 FADH2. Happens twice for each glucose.
Two pyruvate molecules from non-carb source form glucose in liver or kidneys
forms between amino acids
Joins nucleotide pairs in RNA/DNA
Total lung capacity
Total lung capacity: the volume in the lungs at maximal inflation, the sum of VC and RV
connect sugar molecules of polysaccharide
Amount of air inhaled and exhaled during normal breathing
The volume of air remaining in the lungs after a maximal exhalation
The volume of air breathed out after the deepest inhalation
Simple squamous epithelium
Filtration: kidneys, lung
body deprived of oxygen
high CO2, low O2- body stops breathing. Poss due to choking.
Simple cuboidal epithelium
Secretion and absorbtion; ducts of glands and kidney tubules
Simple columnar epithelium
Absorbtion and secretion; line digestive tract, have microvilli
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Line respiratory tract
Stratified squamous epithelium
Skin is keratinized,inside passage is not
Microscopic canals between the lacunae of ossified bone
Large intestine function
Absorbs water, produces and absorbs vitamin K, B12, thiamin, riboflavin. Secretes K+ and Cl-
Channels in bone that contain blood vessels and nerves, surrounded by lamellae
Concentric circles of bone; spaces between are lacunae, contain osteocytes
OH group attached to hydrocarbon
Bending of light as it passes obliquely from one medium to another
Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere, Exosphere. The Straight Man's Testicle's Exploded.
OH group attached to hydrocarbon
C to F
F = 9/5xC+32
Ideal Gas Law
Innermost meninge, highly vascularized to suport neural tissue
Meninge that cushions the brain, middle layer
Outermost meninge, made of thick, tough, inextensible connective tissue
eat foreign cells and debris
structural support, regulate nutrient/ion concentration, form scar tissue
Three fatty acids bound to a glycerol
Salt and water react to form base and acid
Formula for pH
hormone-like lipid, produced throughout body, autocrine or paracrine action. Prostacyclins produced in BVs: vasodilate, inhibit clotting, involved in inflammation. Thromboxanes are vasoconstrictors and facilitate platelet aggregation. Others induce labor, decrease intraocular pressure, regulate hormones, produce fever, control cell growth, inhibit parietal acid secretion, tell JG cells to wake up and increase BP. etc.
Result from invag of cell membrane. Vesicles, tubules, lamellae.
depolarization of the SA node
Increase macrophage activity, act as antitoxins, carry out agglutination. Cross placental barrier, act in blood and tissue fluid.
Agglutination. Act in blood and tissue fluid.
Secretions. Stop bacteria from adhering, prevent bacterial colony formation.
nervous system, sensory epithelia, epidermis
connective tissue, muscles, gonads, renal, circulatory, lymphatic
Epithelial lining of GI and respiratory tract, lining of renal and repro, liver, pancreas, thymus, thyroid and parathyroid
principal active cell of connective tissues. Produce tropocollagen and ground substances, play role in wound healing
mRNA translated in ribosomes to produce polypeptides
DNA transcribed as mRNA
Each AA has its own type of tRNA, which binds it and carries it to the growing polypeptide
Associates with a set of proteins to form ribosomes
Carries the genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid
catalyzes joining of okazaki fragments
Major arteries and veins
Most common chemical compounds
Pyruvate converted to lactic acid and ATP in absence of oxygen
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
TEAS 6 ANATOMY/PHYSIOLOGY
TEAS 6 Science - Macromolecules
TEAS 6 Science - Chemistry
TEAS 6 Science II
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