A level English Language- Age theories
Terms in this set (13)
Gary Ives (3)
*Asked 63 teenagers if people speak differently because of age
*100% said yes
*Case study, not published, just research
What was Gary Ives' conclusion?
Language becomes more standard as we get older
Penelope Eckert 1998(3)
*Chronological age (Number of years since birth)
*Biological age (Physical maturity, e.g pubity)
*Social age (Life events such as marriage and having children)
Jenny Cheshire 1987(3)
*Does separate 'child' and 'adult' language
*language 'develops in response to important life events'
*'affects the social relations and social attitudes of individuals'
Douglas S Bigham 2012(2)
*Post 18 as 'emerging adulthood'
*Using the chronological age
When you learn certain languages at different times
Genie the 'feral' child 1957(4)
*Child abuse, locked away with no social interaction until she was 13
*Chronological age= 13
*Social age= 0
*Biological age= stunted
Anna-Brita Strenstrom's theory
'Teenage talk: From general characteristics to the use of pragmatic markers in a constructive perspective'
Anna-Brita Stenstrom's theory findings(7)
*Indistinct articulation (mumbling)
*Verbal duelling (banter)
*taboo topics (rude topics like sex)
*language mixing (from other cultures incuding media)
Penelope Eckert 2003(5)
*'Slang is used to establish a lost connection to youth culture and to set themselves off from the older generations...to signal coolness, toughness or attitude'
*'Linguistic change is far more common in teenagers, for example the coining (making up) new lexical items'
*'like' and 'okay' as discourse markers
*Multiple negation (more than one negative)
Penelope Eckert 2003
'adolescents do not all talk alike; on the countrary differences among adolescents are probably for greater than speech differences among the members or any other age group'
*Children as young as 4 use 'like'
*stage 1: children use 'like' infrquently and mainly at the beginning of a clause
*Stage 2: Children use 'like' more often and in a range of positions. Girls use at 5 but boys 7
*Stage 3: Use 'like' frequently, before a prepositional phrase (look at yours landed LIKE right in the middle)
Christoper.V. Odatp 2013
Children would se it more frequently and it different positions when they observe older people using it