In chapter 30, Candide asserts and then reiterates the position that "we must cultivate our garden." What does he mean by this and how does this metaphor provide the denouement to the novel?
Candide, Pangloss, Cunegedon, etc retreat to literally cultivating a garden. Pagloss says, "when man was placed in the Garden of Eden, he was put there to dress it and to keep it". After going through the worst rapes, murders, butcheries, missing buttcheeks...this chain of events is the best of all possible worlds because without it, they would not "be here eating candied fruit and pistachio nuts", claims Pangloss, but at this point, all this philosophy and talk and thinking doesnt even matter anymore, because they must "go and work in the garden". Candide's statement that translates to "we must cultivate our garden" signifies Voltaire's Self-Determinist view. Pangloss reflects on Liebnitz's philosophy of the butterfly effect, stating that all the events that happened prior in the novel had to happen for them to end up in the nice garden. Candide spent the whole novel agreeing with Pangloss and his views, and he agrees, such as Deists (and Voltaire) believe that yes, God put this garden here, but it is up to us to determine our own fate and in a sense "cultivate our own gardens." It shows that in the end, Candide was a self-determinist because the quote, "go and work in the garden" resembled that they had to earn their way after life and that God does not help them in any way in their life; God exists although he does not infere in our lives. This is Voltaire's Deist manifesto. 10