65 terms

Chapter 16 Reading Guide

chpt 16: the world economy
what 2 events caused europeans to become more aware of the wider world by 1500
crusades and mongol invasion
how were smaller ships used on early voyages propelled
by oars
new type of ships
deep-draft, round-hulled, capable of carrying heavy armaments (military supplies)
what devices helped voyages
compass, cannon, guns
how were the europeans able to go farther and protect themselves
could kill and intimidate from distance
2 reasons why portugal's rulers were drawn into excitement of discovery
potential harm they can cause to muslims and thirst for wealth
what did they brink back from expeditions
slaves, spices, stories of gold hoards
why were sailors looking for india
direct contact = easy access to luxury cloths and spices
what year did they round the cape of good hope
who did the portugese face hostility from
muslim merchants (muslims dominated trade)
what 2 things did the portugese have to trade
iron pots and a lot of gold
where did they set up forts
on african coast and in india
name of explorer who gave the new world its name
amerigo vespucci
spain and portugal fought over the new world. who settled the matter
which nations joined the global competition late but soon took the lead
france, england, hollance, britain (northern europe)
what was spain and portugal doing
digesting gains they already made
what did the dutch and british improve that helped them
design of oceanic vessels
after what and when was britain able to vie for dominance on the seas
battle w/ spanish armada in 1588
what was the english's main quest for
what rights did the companies such as the east india company have
could raise armies and coin money (acted like independent govts.)
europe's dominance and the opening of atlantic and pacific had 3 consequences
international exchange of foods, diseases, products; new world economy; creation of conditions for colony formation
2 diseases brought to new world
smallpox and measles
% of native american population affected by diseases
what animals were brought to america
horses and cattle
why did the muslims lose their power in international trade
defeated by spanish fleet in the battle of lepanto in 1571
what was china's attitude towards traders
govt. limited european ability to seize harbors outright
what did european traders do when direct control of area was not feasible
influence formed special conclaves in cities where western traders won special legal rights
in dependent areas not all people were mired in poverty. who was making a profit
african slave traders and princes who taxed trade
what led to the massive importation of slaves
decrease of the native population due to disease
what was china's attitude to new traders since they adhered to tradition
benefited through trade but was not interested in world trade and participated less than others
japanese fascinated what european products
guns and shipping
japanese leaders afraid of what so they encouraged..
western influence/impact... local gunmaking industry
between 17th and 19th century, japan was
in almost complete isolation
in india there was some trade but most attention went to
internal development and land-based expansion
how did russia fit into world economy
traded w/ nomadic groups
how did africa fit into the world economy
outside of slave-trading regions it was untouched by it
volume of trade increased in
17th century
western european demands for grains led to
increased eastern european production (which brought east euro. into world economy) and intensification of serfdom
india was not as dependent as who
latin america
what gave the europeans specal advantages when invading
guns, horses, iron weapons
what year did the first settlement begin and where and what were they looking for
panama 1509, searching for gold
who led this expedition
vasco de alboa
which violent and treacherous adventurer conquered the inca empire
francisco pizarro
who did the spanish control native populations
loosely controlled by colonial administrations back home
govt. land grants were given out to major proprieters (property owners) to recruit
french plan involved setting up
manorial estates under great lords w/ carefully restricted rights by the state
north american colonies were not valued as like the asia colonies. why
value of products not as great
what did the southern colonies produce
tobacco, sugar, and cotton
what type of govt/policy making was occurring in north american colonies
self-operated assemblies and church assemblies gave governing power to groups of elders/congregations
the colonists were consumers of polit. theories:
parliamentary ideas of john locke and Enlightenment materials
how did north american leaders see themselves
as part of a larger western world
why did great britain impose firmer limits on the colonists' modest economy
hope for higher tax revenues and to guarantee british market
contrast latin w/ north america in their attitudes towards mixing w/ native americans
latin america- combined to forge new cultural groups, whereas in north america they did not combine
what deterred the europeans from colonizing further into africa
climate, disease, and nonnavigable rivers
what were two important exceptions to this
the portugese search for slaves in angola and the dutch cape colony
when did the clash w/ local bantu farmers begin and end
1770-late 20th century
what 2 advantages did the british east india company have
1) access to ganges valley w/ station at calcutta 2) and great influence over govt. and excellent communication on ocean routes through the british navy
britain or france was more interested in mission work? why?
france b/c protestants committed to colonial missions
when did outright warfare erupt
1744 and again during seven years' war
what was the "black hole" of calcutta
120 englishmen were put into their own jails died from humidity and overcrowding
when did the full history of british india begin
late 18th cent. when british govt. became more active in indian administration
in most colonies, euro. admin. was fairly loose except in
south africa and the americas
what was the main impact of the colonies
press for economicadvantage for the home country by opening markets and prompting commercial production of cheap foods/raw materials
how were the mother countries affected by this system of colonies
increased wealth/capital, enhanced commercial charcter, less dependent on agriculture alone, higher tax revenues
how was china affected
prospered from imports of silver, though gains were checked by rapid population growth