AP European History Chapter 21
Courtesy of funkyfes and BLBrown46.
Terms in this set (81)
His efforts helped bring about the modern Italian state in place of the several separate states, many dominated by foreign powers, that existed until the 19th century. He also helped define the modern European movement for popular democracy in a republican state.
(1767-1830) French liberal theorist who believed that "property alone renders a man capable of exercising his political rights."
Prince Clemens von Metternich
He was Austria's representative at the Congress of Vienna, he feared Russia gaining too much power along with liberalism and nationalism as a threat to Austria's power with in Europe. He effectively controlled the Congress of Vienna
Frederick William III
Prussian King during Napoleonic Era, instituted political and institutional reforms in response to Prussia's defeat by Napoleon. (reforms included abolition of serfdom, created self-government though town councils, expansion of schools, and establishment of a national army). However, Prussia remained an absolutist state with little intrest in unity.
Student societies led by Ludwig Jahn that were in favor of liberalism and unified Germany. When a member killed August von Kotzebue, the govt. turned to censorship in Carlsbad Decrees (1819).
He was a member of the Burschenschaften (liberal student association) who murdered a conservative playwright and was the immediate cause of the Karlsbad Decrees
August von Kotzebue
A German playwright whose work did not sit well with the Burchenschaften. They burned one of his books at a conference in Wartsburg, and a member assassinated him.
Issued by Metternich, required 39 independent German states, including Prussia and Austria, to root out subversive ideas. (censorship) Also established permanent comittee with spies to punish any liberal or radical organization.
The German confederation promulgated this, which limited the subjects that might be discussed in the constitutional chambers of Bavaria, Wurttemberg, and Baden. The measure also asserted the right of the monarchs to resist demands of constitutionalists.
English Political Party. supported Constititional Monarchy. Decidedly liberal
English Political Party. Supported the Ancien Regime and the revival of the Monarch. Decidedly conservative.
Tory minister of Great Britian who was unprepared for the postwar dislocation caused by two years of poor harvests and unemployment. He sought to protect the intrests in the landed and the wealthy
Corn Law (1815)
Raised a tariff for corn and other widely harvested produce in order to protect British corn. Very helpful for those in Britain who owned lots of land.
These were the laws passed by the Parliament that prohibited the English people from forming a union
newspaper by William Cobbett that demanded political change in the response to the upper class policies and oistwar economic downturn
Major John Cartwright
an English naval officer, Nottinghamshire militia major and prominent campaigner for parliamentary reform. He subsequently became known as the Father of Reform.
Henry "Orator" Hunt
a British radical speaker and agitator remembered as a pioneer of working-class radicalism and an important influence on the later Chartist movement. He advocated parliamentary reform and the repeal of the Corn Laws.
Coercion Act (1817)
repressive British act that suspended habeas corpus and extended laws of against seditious gatherings
This protest led to the government issuing the Six Acts. An orderly protest that was savagely broken up by armed cavalry. The reason for protest was for the repeal of the Corn Laws which brought widespread unemployment and postwar economic stress. The protest was held by mostly urban laborers, who were supported by radical intellectuals.
Six Acts (1819)
1. Forbade large unauthorized public meetings, 2. Raised the fines for seditious libel, 3. Speeded up the trials for political agitators, 4. Increased newspaper taxes, 5. Prohibited the training of armed groups, 6. Allowed local officials to search homes in certain disturbed counties.
Cato Street Conspiracy
Following the Peterloo Massacre and passing of the Six Acts (which hindered free speech) a group of revolutionaries came up with a plan to assassinate several cabinet ministers, overthrow the government and start a radical revolution, the plan failed and they were caught on Cato Street in London.
(1814-1824) Restored Bourbon throne after the Revolution. He accepted Napoleon's Civil Code (principle of equality before the law), honored the property rights of those who had purchased confiscated land and establish a bicameral (two-house) legislature consisting of the Chamber of Peers (chosen by king) and the Chamber of Deputies (chosen by an electorate).
A reactionary idea in the French political stage that supported total restoration of the Bourbons.
name of the constitution of Louis XVIII which provided for a monarchy and bicameral legislature
A reactionary onslaught that was meant to instill fear in liberals, so that they would back down and vote conservatively.
Spanish Revolution (1820)
A civil war in Spain fought between royalists and liberals. France intervened, trying to restore the Bourbon Ferdinand VII to the throne in Spain.
Bourbon Ferdinand VII
He was returned to the throne of Spain by the Congress of Vienna and tried to stop the push for independence that the Creoles (many of whom were army officers and well versed in the teachings of Enlightenment writers) had begun when Spain was conquered by Napoleon. He was overthrown by a military coup d'etat .
Congress of Troppau
Metternich was horrified because of the revolution rising once again. Calling this in Austria under the provisions of the Quadruple Alliance Metternich and Alexander I proclaimed the principle of active intervention to maintain all autocratic regimes whenever they were threatened.
Protocol of Troppau
This asserted that stable government might intervene to restore order in countries experiencing revolution
Congress of Laibach
congress in which decision was made on whether to allow Austria to intervene in Italy. Shortly after Austrian troops marched into naples and restored the king of the two sicilies to a nonconstitutional government
Congress of Verona
After the Austrian troops marched into Naples, this final postwar congress took place in October 1822. Its primary purpose was to resolve the situation in Spain.
British foreign secretary; asked the American minister in London if the United States would band together with the British in a joint declaration renouncing any interest in acquiring Latin American territory, and specifically warning the European dictators to keep their harsh hands off the Latin American republics.
an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers
The Eastern Question
What should the European powers do about Ottoman inability to assure political and administrative stability in its possessions in and around the eastern Mediterranean?
Treaty of London (1827)
Britain, France, Russia demand the Ottoman Empire recognize Greek independence & agree to use force (if necessary) to end the fighting
Treaty of Adrianople (1829)
After Russian advances against the Ottomans, the Europeans intervened and got both parties to sign this treaty, which gave the Russians control over the Caucausus and the Danube, and the Greeks got their independence, but the Europeans hadn't picked a prince yet.
Treaty of London (1830)
This made Greece an independent country.
the remarkable Serbian leader who lead a guerilla war against ottoman authorities between 1804 and 1813
A Serbian leader who succeeded in negotiating greater administrative autonomy for some Serbian territory but most serbs lived outside the borders of this new entity. In 1833, then a hereditary prince, he pressured Ottoman authorities to extend the boarders of Serbia, which they did.
Creole political committees which claimed the right to govern different regions of Latin America
Count of Artois
The leader of the refuseniks, the brother of King Louis XVIII, and leader of the ultra-royalists. Later Charles X.
Rio de La Plata
The first region in Latin America to assert itself for independence. The center of revolutionary activities was Buenos Aires.
Jose de San Martin
The general of the Rio de la Plata forces. He led his forces over the Andes Mountains and occupied Santiago. He also helped drive royalist forces from Lima and became the Protector of Peru.
The chief revolutionary leader of Chilean independence. Established as supreme dictator.
Venezuelan revolutionary. A staunch republican who denounced monarchial rule in the new states. He eventually went into exile and let Peru fall into confusion. Teamed up with San Martin to form a liberating army to oppose Spanish forces.
Venezuelan cowboys who challenged the authority of the republican government
Battle of Ayacucho
The final stand of Spanish royalist forces in which they suffered a defeat against the liberating army of Bolivar and San Martin. Thwarted the final Spanish effort to retain their empire in the Americas.
Term for the Spanish empire in America. Included Mexico, Texas, California, and the southwestern US.
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
Mexican priest who led the first stage of the Mexican independence war in 1810. He was captured and executed in 1811.
Jose Marin Morelos y Pavon
Succeeded Costilla as the leader for Mexican independence. Far more radical, he called for an end to the force labor and for land reforms. He too was executed.
A person of mixed Spanish and Native American ancestry.
Augustin de Ituribe
He declared Mexican independence from Spain. He was then declared emperor of Mexico.
Portuguese monarch who made Brazil a colony of Portugal. Due to a revolution in Portugal, he returned to his home country
Installed by Joao VI as the regent in Brazil. He embraced the cause of Brazilian independence. He became emperor of Brazil.
The conservative tsar of Russia, he work tirelessly to preserve autocracy.
This secret society advocated representative government and the abolition of serfdom.
The leader of the Southern Society. He also favored limited independence for Poland and democracy.
A secret society that favored constitutional monarchy and the abolition of serfdom. However, they wanted to protect the interests of the aristocracy.
The brother of Alexander I and next in line for the Russian throne upon his sibling's death, He married a woman who was not of royal blood and excluded himself form the throne, which he was more than willing to do.
The younger brother of Alexander I, he was named the tsar after his brother was declared ineligible.
After the Moscow regiment, whose chief officers refused to swear allegiance to the new tsar, They wanted an constitution and wanted Constantine to be tsar. Nicholas ordered an attack on the insurgents. More than sixty people were killed.
A program initiated by Nicholas. It was a program of autocracy that championed the power of the tsar as the single authority that could govern Russia and its people. It was presided over by Count S.S. Uvarov.
Grand Duke Constantine
The brother of Tsar Nicholas, he was asked to run Poland's government
Issued by Nicholas, this declared that Poland was part of the Russian Empire. It did guarantee some Polish liberties. Unfortunately, the delegated liberties were ignored.
Succeeded Louis XVIII as the king of France. A staunch absolutist, he initiated a number of reactionary policies to favor the aristocracy. He had the Chamber of Deputies compensate aristocrats who had lost their lands in the revolution. Also called the Count of Artois.
Prince de Polignac
The ultraroyalist minister appointed by Charles X. He sent a naval expedition against Algeria to establish a French empire in North Africa.
Passed on July 25, 1830, these articles restricted freedom of the press, abolished the recently elected Chamber of Deputies, restricted the COD to the wealthiest people in the country, and called for new elections under the royalist franchise. Liberals were outraged.
Succeeded Charles X as "king of the French." Although more liberal than the restoration government, his regime did little for the lower and working classes. As a result, he was forced to abdicate.
The formal name of the new monarchy under Louis Philippe.
July Days 1832
An uprising in Paris during the funeral of a Napoleonic general. The troops were summoned and more than 800 people were killed or wounded.
William of Holland
When a compromise between the Dutch and the Belgians failed, with regard to a performance of an opera about a rebellion in Naples against Spanish rule, he sent troops against Belgium.
The British foreign-minister who advocated the recognition of Belgium as an independent and neutral state.
Leopold of Saxe-Coburg
Became king of the Belgians.
Convention of 1839
Guaranteed Belgian neutrality.
Act of Union
United Ireland and England under one government. Allowed Ireland to send 100 members to the House of Commons. However, only Protestants could sit.
The Great Reform Bill 1832
Bill that expanded the size of the English electorate and made a huge influence on English voting.
Under his leadership, Irish nationalists organized the Catholic Association to agitate for Catholic Emancipation. He won his own seat in Parliament but could not legally sit.
An organization that advocated Catholic Emancipation.
Catholic Emancipation Act 1829
This act ended the Anglican Church's stranglehold on British political life. It allowed wealthy Irishmen to vote.
Duke of Wellington
Along with Robert Peel, he pushed the Catholic Emancipation Act through Parliament.
Succeeded George IV as king of England. His ascension initiated Parliamentary election and reform.