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Child Language Acquisition Speaking

Terms in this set (94)

Idea that "language has a biologically organized schedule".
Children everywhere follow a similar pattern. In their first few weeks, babies mostly cry. As Ronald Knox once said: 'A loud noise at one end, and no sense of responsibility at the other.' Crying exercises the lungs and vocal cords. But crying may once have had a further evolutionary purpose. Yelling babies may have reminded parents that their offspring exist: deaf ringdoves forget about their existing brood, and go off and start another.
In 1987, she identified three stages that occur during a child's acquisition of vocabulary: labeling, packaging and network building.
1. Labeling - The first stage and involves making the link between the sounds of particular words and the objects to which they refer e.g. understanding that "mummy" refers to the child's mother. In other words, associating a name with something.
2. Packaging - This entails understanding a word's range of meaning. This is when Over extension and Under extension become a hurdle in the development of the language.
3. Network Building - This involves grasping the connections between words; understanding that some words are opposite in meaning.Aitchison argued that there are no EXACT dates to which a child reaches a certain stage of learning language - some children learn faster than others. She believed that the speed of learning is influenced by both innate abilities and environment. Language is partly learned by imitation, so parents and brothers/sisters play a role in the acceleration of learning the language. Baby talk whilst learning to speak could hinder the child in learning to speak later on. Speech timetable created from birth to ten years old.
Dialogues:1.) According to Aitcheson's Timetable of Speech, children grasp the use of single words at month 12.
M: Mmm! isn't that nice?
C: More.
M: Okay! Here comes the aero plane!
C: Yeh. 2.)

By the age of 2, the understanding of word endings begins to appear. However, it's a bit complicated at times for the child to always get it right, as some past tense verbs require no ending and it is placed by the child anyway. This is an example of them learning actively.
D: Are you going to tell Mummy what you did today?
C: I roded on a horsie!!
3.) During the age of 2 is when Aitchison believes negatives are formed and the ability to ask questions is developed:
M: Catch! throws ball
C: misses Why didn't I caught it?
M: It's alright, smile don't sulk!
C: I not crying.
4.) At 5 years the child is able to speak using complex constructions and rarely faults:

C: Can I go to Joes for tea? We are going to play football in the park like last week.
M: If you stay clean
C: Whatever!
This is the process of language acquisition. Naturally, children will vary individually when they reach each stage but there is little variation in the sentence of language learning. By the end, a child's language is in place and (s)he has a basic lexicon of several thousand words. From now on, what is learned is retained and increasingly dependant upon experiences and environment - on opportunities to use language and hear it used, for a wide range of purposes and audiences in a wide range of contexts.

Humans mop up words like sponges.
—Jean Aitchison, British linguist, The Language Web, 1997