Review for the final on 1/19/12
Terms in this set (90)
monarch under divine right
the idea that kings receive their power from God & is responsible only to him.
English materialist and political philosopher who like absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government
wrote the Leviathan
Thirty Years War (1618-1642)
was about religious conflict & was one of the most destructive conflicts in European History.
Peace of Westphalia
ended the 30 yrs. War. An important consequence was promoting the notion that the European nations viewed each other as sovereign & equal.
due to the religious tensions bw protestants & Catholics.
Peter the Great
Westernized Russia, Built St.Petersburg , Expanded Russian territory, Gained ports on the Baltic Sea, Created a military army, Ended Russia's long period of isolation.
Akbar the Great
Extended Mughal Empire in India Strengthened the central gov't, Was one of the most religiously tolerant rulers Oversaw revival of art & literature, but was himself illiterate.Devoted to architecture.Maintained peace & prosperity.
English Bill of Rights
set of acts passed by Parliament to ensure its superiority over the monarchy.
King must work with Parliament
Parliament can tax & make laws
Citizens can bare arms & have jury trial
No cruel & unusual punishment
bloodless revolution The overthrow of James II by William & Mary.
England becomes a Limited Monarchy Constitutional Gov't.
the Netherlands also developed a Constitutional monarchs must share power with a representative body
Expanded the bureaucracy, appointed officials, recruited soldiers Organized a highly disciplined army, strongest in Europe Constantly waged war Commanded complete loyalty from his subjects & shared authority with no one Infused French culture into all levels of European society.Persecuted the Protestant Huguenots
Built the lavish, immense Palace of Versailles,The Sun King
18th-century intellectual mvmt. led by philosophers that wanted natural rights for people Introduced new ways of viewing authority, power, gov't & law.
religious based to scientific based
Period when scientists began to question the old idea about the world Central to the thinking of 17th century scientists in Europe was a mechanistic view of the human body & the world at large
challenge the belief that the earth was at the center of the universe (Geocentric theory)
Used mathematical formulas to suggest that the universe was heliocentric, or sun-centered Also first scientific thinker
Belief that the Sun was at the center of the universe.
Believed that all ppl possess natural rights, incl. the right to life, liberty, & property.
Gov't was the result of a Social Contract b/w rulers & ruled.Influenced the Declaration of Independence
He believed that ppl are naturally good but are corrupted by the evils of society.
The Social Contract
Wrote that the powers of gov't should be separated into 3 branches: legislative, executive, & judicial.
This separation of powers would prevent tyranny by creating a system of checks & balances.
Believed in free speech. wanted to permit religious toleration & intellectual freedom. Resented the persecution of religious minorities & censorship of royal officials,
Declaration of Independence
Penned by Thomas Jefferson in 1776
Proclaimed separation from Great Britain
Wrote that gov'ts rule only with the consent of the governed
Gov't should protect inalienable rights
Causes of the French Revolution
1st Estate - Clergy
2nd Estate - Nobles
3rd Estate - Commoners
English and American Examples
National Assembly (1789-1791)
Storming of the Bastille
Women's March on Versailles
Declaration of the Rights of Man & the Citizen
A Limited Monarchy (constitution):
2) Convention (1792-1794)
Reign of Terror
War with Austria/Prussia
Monarchy ends / King & Queen die
3) Directory (1795-1799)
4) Age of Napoleon (1799-1815)
Aristocrats protected that effort & forced Loui to summon the Estates General - a body of representatives of all three estates. the French parliment/ composed of the representatives from the three estates of french society/ troubled with voting--1st and 2nd estates could outvote 3rd
The third estate responded dramatically - seceded & declared itself the National Assembly
Locked themselves in the Tennis Court & swore not to disband until a new constitution was written.
Aims to reconfigure French society.
Abolished old social order (ends feudalism), got rid of many fees peasants owed to their landlord, seized church lands, abolishing the 1st estate & defining them as citizens who had to take an oath to the state.
"Liberty, equality, Fraternity" becomes the slogan.
8/1789 - Issued the Declaration of the Rights of Man & the Citizen
Contained many Enlightenment ideals.
Men are born & remain free & equal in rights
Constitutional (Limited) Monarchy - men of property had the right to vote & chose legislators.
The leaders of the Rev. called for a complete reorganize of French political, social & cultural structures.
7/14/89 a Parisian crowd, fearing that the king sought to undo events on the previous weeks & already rioting over high bread prices, stormed the Bastille, a royal jail & arsenal, in search of weapons & gunpowder.
Military protecting the Bastille surrendered, but only after killing many attackers.
Reign of Terror
Radical turn.Revolutionary leaders created the Convention - a new legislative body - abolished the monarchy & proclaimed France a RepublicViolence peaked in 1793-94 when the Jacobins (a radical political club) led by Maximilien Robespierre dominated the Convention.Jacobins wanted to eliminate the influence of Christianity by closing churches & forcing priests to take wives.Promoted a new "cult of reason" as a secular alternative to Christianity.When the Convention arrested Robespierre & executed him, the Reign ended.
Group of conservative men seized power & ruled France under a new institution known as the Directory.
Moderates produced another constitution (1795)
Tried to reach a middle ground b/w radicals & Ancien Regime, wavered a lot on policies.
Was weak & inefficient & unable to resolve the economic & military problems
Centralized state with Constitution
Peace with Roman Catholic Church
Established public schools
Ruled as a tyrant
Changes on world stage
Failed to make Europe into a French Empire
Sparked nationalistic feelings
Sold the Louisiana Territory (1803)
Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen
1789 - Issued the Declaration of the Rights of Man & the Citizen
Contained many Enlightenment ideals.
Men are born & remain free & equal in rights
Santo Domingue was the richest of all the European colonies: sugar, coffee, cotton produced there accounted for almost 1/3 of France's foreign trade.
Only successful slave revolt.
500,000 black slaves, most born in Africa.
Civil war broke out b/w the two groups.
Yellow fever ravaged the French army.
1804 received independence
1791 Vodou priest Boukman organized a slave revolt. 12,000 slaves began killing white settlers, burning homes & destroying plantations.
Slave forces eventually overcame white settlers & foreign armies, largely due to the efforts of Toussaint.
Had no formal education, but was a skilled organizer, built a disciplined army
A Creole priest in Dolores.
Strong believer in liberty & equality, & wanted radical restructuring of the gov't.
On Sep 16, 1810, he gathered his towns ppl, Native American peasants, & shouted the Grito de Dolores. Rally against colonial rule.
Hidalgo's band of men, women, & children fought with farm tools against the weak Spanish.
In 1811, several victories, he was captured & executed.
Many ppl believe his mvmt was a social & economic warfare by the masses against the elites of Mexican society.
(1910-1920 CE) Fought over a period of almost 10 years form 1910; resulted in ouster of Porfirio Diaz from power; opposition forces led by Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata.
Latin American Revolutions
By 1830s, geographic factors plus cultural differences defeated attempts at unification.
Many newly indep. countries struggle with civil wars
Independence Brought More Poverty
-The wars disrupted trade & devastated the cities & the countryside.
4. Brought little social change.
- Peninsular returned to Europe, but Latin American society remained stratified.
- New states allowed the continuation of slavery, confirmed the wealth & authority of the Roman Catholic Church, and repressed the lower orders.
5. Left many countries in the Control of Caudillos (dictators).
Principal beneficiaries of independence in Latin Am. were the Creole elites.
born in Venezuela.
Educated in Europe & became a strong supporter of the Amer. & Fr. Revs.
By 1830s, geographic factors plus cultural differences defeated attempts at unification.
Entire Viceroyalty of New Granada free of Spanish rule. Bolivar is elected president of Gran Columbia. (C,V,P,E)
Caste system - Peninsulares, Creoles, Mestizos, Mulottoes, Natives
Peninsulares (1800: 30,000) - born in Spain, moved to new world - dominated Latin Am. life. Only they could hold top jobs in gov't & church.
Creoles (~3.5 million) - ppl of Spanish or Portuguese descent born in new world. Resented their second class status.
Benefited greatly as they established plantations & ranches in the colonies & participated in rapidly expanding trade with Spain & Portugal.
Mestizos - bi-racial ppl of indigenous & European descent
Mulattoes - bi-racial ppl of African & European descent
Began in Britain, around 1750.
Social and economic change that began in England in the 1760s when the industrial geography of England changed significantly and later diffused to other parts of western Europe. In this period of rapid socioeconomic change, machines replaced human labor and new sources of inanimate energy were tapped. Coal was the leading energy source fueling the industrial revolution in England's textile-focused industrial explosion.
A change in farming methods that allowed for a greater production of food. This revolution was fueled by the use of new farming technology. The result was a population increased because of higher availability of food. A cause of the Industrial Revolution.
Fencing off land once shared by peasant farmers.
Many farm laborers were thrown out of work, but produced more food.
The four-course crop rotation system (wheat-turnips-barley-clover), no fallow land.
Enclosure mvmt drove peasants off their land & thereby created the workforce needed for factories & mines.
Who led the world in the production of cotton cloth in 1700
Economic policy common to many absolute monarchies. Government control of foreign trade is of paramount importance for ensuring the military security of the country. In particular, it demands a positive balance of trade and desires new sources of gold and silver bullion, thus fueling more colonialism.
an economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations, esp. as contrasted to cooperatively or state-owned means of wealth.
Adam Smith - Wealth of Nations
Promoted laissez-faire, free-market economy, and supply-and-demand economics.
a socialist manifesto written by Marx and Engels (1842) describing the history of the working-class movement according to their views
Why did Britain become the first industrialized country?
the economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will untimately be superseded
What was the most important invention of the Industrial Revolution?
love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it
Imperialism began at the end of the 19th century. It is the economic and political domination of one people by another. Imperialism was fueled by nationalism, capitalism, racism, and imperialism.
politics based on practical rather than moral or ideological considerations
The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism.
Dutch settlers in south Africa
a ship canal in northeastern Egypt linking the Red Sea with the Mediterranean Sea.
INDIA TO ENGLAND
How did Liberia differ from other African countries?
Independent, fought off them white people
Theorists who applied Darwin's theory of natural selection to human society, arguing that poorer and weaker segments of society desrved their fate.
Russia and Japan were fighting over Korea, Manchuria, etc. Began in 1904, but neither side could gain a clear advantage and win. Both sent reps to Portsmouth, NH where TR mediated Treaty of New Hampshire in 1905. TR won the nobel peace prize for his efforts, the 1st pres. to do so.
Indian National Congress
A movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government. Its membership was middle class, and its demands were modest until World War I. Led after 1920 by Mohandas K. Gandhi, appealing to the poor.
Ethiopia and Asante
Were also free and independent while asante british
Spanish American War
In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence
Chinese and japanese response to imperialism
didnt want to be imperialised and fought it
a French colony comprised of Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam; it won independence from France in 1954
Set up by Otto Von Bismarck, war was declared July 19, 1870. In January 1871, Palace of Versailles was captured and Wilhelm I was named Kaiser. This empire was called the Second Reich.
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops
War between Britain and the Qing Empire that was, in the British view, occasioned by the Qing government's refusal to permit the importation of opium into its territories. The victorious British imposed the one-sided Treaty of Nanking on China.
The revolt of Indian soldiers in 1857 against certain practices that violated religious customs; also known as the Sepoy Mutiny.
The main allies were France, the Russian Empire, the British Empire, Italy and the United States.
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Ottoman Empire
the ability of a government to determine their own course of their own free will
Allocation of former German colonies and Ottoman possessions to the victorious powers after World War I, to be administered under League of Nations supervision.
Reasons for US's entry into WW1
Ensure their debts could be paid off by Britain.
Sinking of the Lucitania.
Telegram from Germany to Mexico.
Japan sent Germany an ultimatum on 14 August 1914, which went unanswered; Japan then formally declared war on Germany on 23 August 1914. As Vienna refused to withdraw the Austro-Hungarian cruiser SMS Kaiserin Elisabeth from Tsingtao, Japan declared war on Austria-Hungary, too, on 25 August 1914.
a war that involves the complete mobilization of resources and people, affecting the lives of all citizens in the warring countries, even those remote from the battlefields.
WW1's impact on Women
Put back to work mainly in factories.
Alliance between Germany, Italy, Austria Hungry
Attack plan by Germans, proposed by Schliffen, lightning quick attack against France. Proposed to go through Belgium then attack France, Belgium resisted, other countries took up their aid, long fight, used trench warfare.
What was the failure of League of Nations as an international force?
Could not enforced.
US was not joining.
how fighting was different from western and eastern fronts
World War 1: The western front had trench warfare, where after Sept 1914 the front remained relatively unchanged until the end of the war in 1918. The eastern front was longer and therefore lower troop concentrations. The lower troop concentrations made trenches less effective and the was had more movement.
the Turkish government organized the department of the armenians in the Ottoman Empire and over a million were murdered or starved - one of the first genocides of the 20th centuries
Treaty of Versailles
Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce. 2) Germany had to rapair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manefacture any weapons.
What was the relationship b/w Wilson & Clemenceau & Lloyd George
Wilsons fourteen points seemed not pratical to clemenceau and lloyd george
1. assination of archduke and heir of Austrian throne 2. serbia would not let austria prosecute guilty party and declare war 3. russia sides with serbia and germany sides with austria 4. british & french sides with Russia & Serbia because they feared the raising power of germany 5. growing nationalism 6.overreaaction of invovled parties
the coup d'etat by the Bolsheviks under Lenin in November 1917 that led to a period of civil war which ended in victory for the Bolsheviks in 1922
-machine guns - barbed wire - artillery -chlorine &mustard gas
Biggest battle outside of Europe
the middle east, where the turks fought britain, russia and france
Pandemic that spread around the world in 1918, killing more than 50 million people
a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903, the Bolsheviks came to power in Russia during the October Revolution phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, and founded the Soviet Union.
a short, memorable phrase used in advertising or associated with a political party or group. French rev-liberty, equality, fraternity russian rev- Peace, Bread, Land'
An economic system in which the government controls a country's economy.
combining small farms into large, factory-like farms run by the government.
Provisional Government in russia
A temporary government created by the Duma after the abdication of the czar; it made the decision to remain in World War One, costing it the support of the soviets and the people.
Published work of many philosphes in his Encyclopedia. He hoped it would help people think more rationally and critically.
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