Med Surg 2 (Ch. 32 & 34) Exam 1
Terms in this set (29)
Cardiac specific ____________ is a myocardial muscle protein released into circulation after injury or infarction.
_______________ is the biomarker of choice in the diagnosis of MI.
CRP (C reactive protein)
__________ is a protein produced by the liver during periods of acute inflammation. An increased level is an independent risk factor for CAD.
___________ is the marker of choice for distinguishing a cardiac or respiratory cause of dyspnea. It is also a diagnostic marker of heart failure.
Elevations in triglycerides and LDL are strongly associated with ___________.
The ________________________ uses ultrasound waves to record the movement of the structures of the heart. It provides info about abnormalities of valvular structures and motion, cardiac chamber size and contents, ventricular and septal motion and thickness, pericardial sac, and ascending aorta.
right atrium and right ventricle
A pt with a tricuspid valve disorder will have impaired blood flow between the:
Av node, left ventricle, right ventricle
A pt has a severe blockage in his right coronary artery. Which cardiac structures are most likely to be affected by this blockage?
endothelial layer of the arteries
The portion of the vascular system responsible for hemostasis is the:
When a person's BP rises, the homeostatic mechanism to compensate for an elevation involves stimulation of:
a. baroreceptors that inhibit the sympathetic nervous system, causing vasodilation
b. chemoreceptors that inhibit the SNS, causing vasodilation
c. baroreceptors that inhibit PNS causing vasodilation
d. chemoreceptors that stimulate SNS, causing an increased heart rate
A P wave on an ECG represents an impulse arising at the:
a. SA node and repolarizing the atria
b. SA node and depolarizing the atria
c. AV node and depolarizing the atria
d. AV node and spreading the the bundle of His
When collecting subjective data related to the CV system, which info should be obtained from the patient? SATA
a. annual income
b. smoking history
c. religious preference.
d. number of pillows use to sleep
e. blood for basic lab studies
The auscultatory area in the left midclavicular line at the level of the fifth ICS is the best location to hear sounds from which heart valve?
When assessing a pt, you note a pulse deficit of 23 beats. This finding may be caused by:
When assessing the CV system of a 79 yr old patient, you might expect to find difficulty in isolating the _______________ pulse.
monitoring VS and ECG and checking catheter insertion site and distal pulses
Which nursing responsibilities are priorities when caring for a patient returning from a cardiac catheterization?
Patients with _______ can be asymptomatic or develop chronic stable angina.
acute coronary syndrome (ACS)
Unstable angina and MI are more serious manifestations of CAD and are termed __________ ____________ _________________.
C reactive protein (CRP)
A protein produced by the liver and a nonspecific marker of inflammation that is increased in many patients with CAD:
-age, gender, ethnicity, fam hx, and genetics
-elevated serum lipids, elevated BP, tobacco use, physical inactivity, obesity, DM, metabolic syndrome, psychologic states, and elevated homocysteine levels
-gender (more common in men than in women until 65 yr of age)
-ethnicity (more common in whites than AA)
-genetic predisposition and fam hx of heart disease
-Total cholesterol >200 mg/dL
-HDL <40 in men and <50 in women
-depression, hostility, anger and stress
-elevated homocysteine levels
Physical activity program:
-aim for at least 30 mins of moderate physical activity on most days of the week and add weight training 2 days a week
Red meat, egg yolks, and whole milk products are major sources of __________________ fat and cholesterol and should be reduced or eliminated from diets.
-low sat fat, high fiber diet
-avoidance of tobacco
-increase in physical activity
The ___________ drugs are the most widely used lipid lowering drugs. They inhibit the synthesis of cholesterol in the liver.
-increased risk for rhabdomyolysis when also used with Lopid or niacin
-signs of rhabdomyolysis: increased creatine kinase levels, muscle tenderness
-instruct pt that flushing may occur within 20 mins after taking drug and may last for 30-60 mins
-pt can premedicated with aspirin or NSAID 30 min before admin to reduce flushing
-extended release may decrease SE