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Environmental Science and Sustainability Midterm Vocab
Terms in this set (52)
A small pore which is used for
, water, etc.
Stored food for the seed
AKA: seed leaves
(Another word for endosperm)
Scar where a seed was attached to the plant
The part of the stem below the cotyledons
The part of the stem above the cotyledons
When a seed absorbs water. This is the start of the process of germination
Developing top part of the stem/seedling
Developing roots of the plant
The developing plant inside of the seed
Outer covering of the seed
is the process by which plants convert
to sugars (
using energy from the sun.
a structure on most plants that acts as a solar collector; it is full of cells which can perform photosynthesis and works to collect light energy as well as carbon dioxide from the air and water from the roots. Reactants of photosynthesis enter the leaf and products exit the leaf.
usually underground. Their purpose is to absorb the water needed for the plant to photosynthesize.
provides the energy necessary for plants to perform photosynthesis.
a reactant needed for photosynthesis
needed for photosynthesis and taken in through roots
a product of photosynthesis
a product of photosynthesis (sugars)
is a long chain (polymer) carbohydrate that is made from bonding multiple molecules of glucose together. It is how plants store glucose and makes up such things as tree bark, wood of the tree, etc.
Light Dependent Reaction
represent the first part of photosynthesis, a two stage reaction.
These reactions occur in the grana and include absorbing the sunlight to make ATP while water
is split into oxygen, H + ions, and electrons.
Light Independent Reaction
the second part and occur in the stroma. In these, the products form the light dependent reactions are used to make sugars from carbon dioxide.
is an organelle found in plants that is the location for photosynthesis. contain thylakoids, grana, and stroma.
is a molecule and a green pigment. It is necessary for photosynthesis as this is the molecule that absorbs energy from the sun, specifically energy in the violet-blue and red-orange ends of the spectrum.
the area in between the grana in the chloroplast
multiple thylakoids in a stack
the actual unit for photosynthesis in the chloroplast. They contain the chlorophyll
Stomata (plural stoma)
are holes in a plant's leaves that allow for the passage of gas molecules. When carbon dioxide enters a plant and oxygen and water leave the plant, they do so through the stomata.
cells that surround the stomata. When these cells swell with water, the stomata open. When the plant is dry, the stomata close.
special plant cells that allow water from the roots to be moved up the tree or plant to the leaves so it can be used for photosynthesis.
are also specialized tissue in plants. It is the inside layer of the bark and allows the products of photosynthesis, the sugars, to be transported to where they are needed in the plant.
flowering trees and plants
a plant which produces seeds on scales or cones instead of flowers.
a young tree must grow and develop to the stage where it can reproduce
the seed bearing part of a plant which contains the reproductive organs often surrounded by colorful petals. In gymnosperms, a cone is produced instead of a flower and the seed is on the outside
when pollen from the male part of the plant is transferred to the female parts of the plant
a sex cell; in plants these are the ovule and the pollen which together form the new cell inside the seed which develops into the embryo
when one pollen grain then forms a pollen tube that enters the ovule where a male gamee fuses with a female gamete forming a single new cell
the newly fertilized cell becomes an embryo inside a seed which is all inside a fruit
contains the seeds
once the fruit ripens, the seeds can become detached and spread by various means (wind, animals, water)
the process by which a seed grows and develops into a seedling after imbibition of water
the ovule (gamete, egg) producing part of a flower; female reproductive organ
part of the pistil where pollen germinates
a stalk-like part of the pistil which supports the stigma
the enlarged basal portion of the pistil where ovules are produced
the pollen producing part of a flower, usually with a slender filament supporting the anther
the part of the stamen where pollen is produced
the stalk-like part of the stamen which supports the anther
the part of a flower often brightly colored to attract insects and birds
the outer parts of the flower (often green and leaf-like) that enclose and protect the developing bud
the stalk of the flower
the top of the flower stalk where the flower parts are attached
Recommended textbook explanations
Kenneth R. Miller, Levine
Texas Science Fusion: Grade 7
Biology Study Workbook A
Kenneth R. Miller, Levine
Science Fusion Texas, Grade5: New Energy for Science!
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