an opening in the surface of the earth through which lava, gases, and ash are forced out.
Roman farmers, tradespeople, and craftworkers. They were part of the lower class and had few rights.
a member of Rome's noble families. They were wealthy landowners who were part of the ruling class.
means "public thing" in Latin; a government where citizens choose their leaders.
people who acted for the citizens of Rome to run their government.
The oldest and most powerful branch of government in the Roman republic.
representatives of the Plebeians and the leaders of the citizen assembly. They worked to protect the rights of Plebeians.
the third branch of the Roman government elected by the citizen assembly. They could order anyone to be arrested and propose new laws for Rome. They also served for one year as Rome's army commanders and most powerful judges.
Twelve bronze tablets that listed the laws governing all aspects of Roman life including marriage, trade and warfare.
a war between groups within one country.
someone who rules with absolute power.
means "Roman Peace." This was a time when Rome was peaceful and produced buildings, roads, and water systems.
a slave or criminal condemned to death who were forced to fight in arenas.
a periodic count of all the people living in a country, city, or other region.
a collection of books that tells the story of the life of Jesus
according to Jewish belief, a leader who will be sent by God to guide the Jewish people and to set up God's rule on earth.
the religion of the people who follow Jesus
simple stories that contain a message or truth
The closest followers of Jesus. They were the 12 men Jesus had chosen to help him in his teaching.
"putting to death by hanging from a cross"
a regional church leader
from the Latin word for "father," this was the title given to the bishop of Rome.
a policy of arresting, injuring, or even killing members of a religious, ethnic, or other minority group.
The code that dealt with marriage, property rights, slavery, crime and women's rights and was the basis of Byzantine law. Its principles are now part of the laws of Western Europe and the U.S.