APWH 22: Origins of Global Interdependence

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caravels
European ships that used both square and triangular sails. Also had rudders to improve steering. These were instrumental in European exploration.
Prince Henry the Navigator
Prince of Portugal who established an observatory and school of navigation at Sagres and directed voyages that spurred the growth of Portugal's colonial empire.
Christopher Columbus
European explorer most responsible for increasing European interest in transoceanic travel and trade.
trading-post empire
Began in the 16th century by the Portuguese. Instead of conquering an entire nation, European states would establish these in an attempt to force merchant vessels to call at fortified trading sites and pay duties there.
Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC)
Also known as the United East India Company. This Dutch trading company established trading posts throughout Asia.
joint-stock companies
Organizations that pooled resources to minimize risks associated with colonization. Started European colonies throughout the world.
mercantilism
Idea that nations can increase their control of the world's limited wealth supply by increasing the number of colonies they had.
metropole
The home or mother country, especially with respect to its colonies.
Columbian exchange
The global diffusion of plants, food crops, animals, human populations, and disease pathogens that took place after voyages of exploration by Christopher Columbus and other European mariners.
cash crops
Crops raised in large quantities in order to be sold for profit. Best examples are tobacco and sugar.
privateer
A privately owned warship commissioned to prey on the commercial shipping or warships of an enemy nation.
Seven Years' War
Global-scale conflict over control of key trading areas. War when Britain acquired control of Canada and India.