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Pathology key words (Chapter 4) - taken from textbook Essentials of Human Diseases and Conditions, 4th Ed. by M.S. Frazier and J.W. Drzymkowski


Increased growth hormone, occurs after puberty is complete. Treatment focuses on reversing or preventing secreted hGH ideally through surgery with or without radiation.

Addison's disease

Partial or complete failure of adrenocortical function. Onset is gradual over weeks to months. Symptoms include; fatigue, weakness, bronze skin tone, electrolyte imbalance, and cardiovascular problems.


A congenital condition in children in which the thyroid gland is absent or nonfunctional resulting in mental or growth retardation.

Cushing's syndrome

Increase in adrenal cortex secretion or cortisol; includes, weight gain, hypertension, muscle weakness, moon face, and edema.

diabetes insipidus

A deficiency in the release of vasopressin (ADh) from the posterior pituitary resulting in excessive urine secretion (polyuria) and excessive thirst (polydipsia).

diabetes mellitus

Little or no insulin production in the pancreas, transport of glucose to cells impaired.


Abnormal underdevelopment that occurs in children due to decreased growth hormone production.


The outward protrusion of the eyeball.

gestational diabetes (GDM)

A decreased ability to metabolize glucose during pregnancy with onset around 24-28 weeks of gestation; aka - type 3 diabetes.


Increased growth hormone that occurs prior to puberty; treatment focuses on reducing secreted hGH through radiation or surgical intervention.

Grave's disease

Diffuse goiter and over-production of thyroid hormone. Includes the presence of exophthalmos, rapid heartbeat, insomnia, and weight loss.

Hashimoto disease

Chronic disease of the immune system that attacks the thyroid gland.


Increased amount of thyroid hormone.


Abnormally low blood glucose level that can be caused by excessive insulin secretion of the pancreas, fasting, or medications.


Overproduction of PTH hormone resulting in demineralization of bone and release of excess calcium. Symptoms include muscle atrophy, GI pain, and nausea.


A chronic, progressive disease caused by excessive production and secretion of pituitary hormones especially growth hormone (hGH).


Reduced production of PTH hormone resulting in excessive calcium deposits in tissue and decreased circulating calcium.


A deficiency or absence of hormones produced by the pituitary gland, especially those of the anterior pituitary.


A very common condition in which thyroid production is below normal


A severe condition that develops in an older child or adult; can result in life-threatening symptoms including slowed metabolism, weight gain, and muscular weakness.

precocious puberty

Puberty begins for boys before age 9, and before age 8 for girls. Causes include tumors, hypothalamic or pituitary dysfunction, or ingestion of hormones or sex steroids.

simple goiter

Enlargement of the thyroid gland; includes swollen mass at anterior aspect of neck, dyspnea, difficulty swallowing. Usually results from a iodine deficiency.

thyroid cancer

A painless lump or nodule on the thyroid gland that is malignant.

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