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The Empires of Mali and Songhai
Terms in this set (44)
What were the geographic and political factors that made Mali a great trading empire?
They needed strong leaders, peace to have a successful trade, and it was located near the Niger River by gold and salt mines
Assess the impact and economic significance of West African Ruler's adoption of Islam
As the adopt Islam they have a common trade language (Arabic)
Analyze the factors that paved that way for the emergence of the great Songhai trade empire
It has to conquer Mali and inherit gold and salt mines, culture centers, and the trade routes
Identify the major cause of Songhai's decline
Askia's heirs succeeded to the throne; they created small and powerful Islamic group at the top of the ruling society distancing itself from non-muslims; certain states broke away from the empire; Morocco's ruler captured Songhai's salt mines in taghaza; took control of gold source in West Africa
How did Sundiata and his armies extend Mali's trade empire?
He set out restoring gold and salt exchange with Niana as the new trade center for the kingdom; expanded the trade routes of Mali east and north to Sahara to Cairo, Egypt, and to Tunis in Tunisia; people found gold at Bure near the Niger River; converted non-muslims to Islam; cleared land for farming and became a farming region; merchants pay taxes to make the government stronger
What effect did West African rulers' conversion to Islam have on the empire?
Conversions brought Arabic, algebra, and Arabic numerals; Mansa Musa's pilgrimage attracted Mediterranean merchants to the economic importance in Mali; Mansa Musa brought Arab scholars into the empire; trade empire increased; borders expanded
How did Askia Muhammad's strong rule help Songhai become a great trade empire?
Enforced trade and strong leader; attracted merchants all over Muslim world; strong army (could use them to pay taxes); army expanded borders of Songhai; encouraged people to convert to Muslim; invited Muslim scholars to the empire; Timbuktu flourished attracting scholars, traders, and craftspeople
Why did the ruler of Morocco fight for control of Songhai?
Wanted control over the gold and salt mines; Moroccans were able to take the mines since they had guns and they were able to take over Songhai
What events led to the development of the great trade empires of Mali and Songhai?
1. Battle of Kirina, Sundiata had people of Mali convert to Islam
2. Mali controlled Ghana's gold mines, Sundiata searched for salt and gold exchange with Niani
3. Sundiata' successors expanded the trade routes
4. Songhai defeats Mali and rises to power
5. Songhai gains control of salt and gold mines
6. They had peace and gained control of the trade routes
What is the capital of Ghana?
What is the capital of Mali?
What is the capital of Songhai?
What are some of the things the empires of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai had in common?
Located near the Niger River; had strong trade empire; each empire became larger than the last; traded gold and salt; Muslim faith influenced them; economy was based on trade (gold & salt); had strong armies and leaders
Why do you suppose all of the capitals of the Great West African Trade empires were located on the Niger River?
Efficient way to transport goods (gold & salt) it was a busy highway used for trading gold and other goods; important water source; served as a natural border of boundary; near salt and gold mines; provided good farmland; was trade by sea
In what ways were Mansa Musa and Askia Muhammad alike?
In charge of successful trade economies; Muslim; culture was important; brought Arab scholars to the empire; conversions increased under their rule; strong leaders
In what ways was Mansa Musa different from Askia Muhammad?
Ruler Mali; went on pilgrimage to Mecca; inherited throne; more tolerant about religions; focused on trade; forced people to pay taxes
In what ways was Askia Muhammad different from Mansa Musa?
Focused on the army; ruled Songhai, Overthrew Sunni Ali who wasn't Muslim; more strict about converting to Islam; did not force people to pay taxes; did not go on pilgrimage to Mecca
Battle of Kirina
Marked the fall of Ghana and the end of King Sumanguru's reign
What were Sumanguru and Sundiata?
Magicians (Sundiata's magic was more powerful); drained Sumanguru of his magical powers
Who did Sundiata rely on to extend Mali's boundaries?
His army; focused on restoring prosperity to his kingdom
What did Sundiata first concentrate on?
Concentrated on improving agriculture; solders cleared land for farming; planted rice, yams, onions, beans, rains, and cotton; after a few years it Mali became a productive farming region
What was Mali's economy based on?
Based on trade; fighting in Ghana interrupted trans-Saharan trade-trade that crossed the Sahara
What happened less than 100 years after the victory at Kirina?
Mali became the most powerful kingdom in Africa; by late 1300's Mali was three times larger than Ghana had been
Who succeeded Mali's throne in 1307?
When did Mansa Musa make the journey to Mecca
1321; 3,500-mile journey
Who accompanied Mansa Musa on his journey?
Accompanied by 50,000 people- friends, family, members, doctors, advisers, and 500 slaves carrying golden staffs; 80 to 100 camels each carrying 100 pounds of gold dust
What happened after Mansa Musa's pilgrimage?
European map makers be an to include Mali on maps because of its role in international trade
How did Mali's profits and trade empire increase?
Muslim traders welcomed the opportunity to trade with fellow muslims in different states
What was most of Mali divided into?
States under Mansa Musa's control; some regions were allowed to remain dependait as long as they were loyal and portion their wealth to Mali
When did Mansa Musa die?
What happened after Mansa Musa's death?
Mali was ruled by a series of kings who were unable to protect the territory; Berber nomads attacked caravan routes in the desert and threatened to take Timbuktu; people from southern rainforests raided Mali's southern border; Songhai began to revolt
Who were the Songhai?
Mixture of farmers, traders, fishermen, and warriors who lived along the Niger near the city of Gao
What happened in 1435?
A Songhai prince named Sunni Ali declared Gao's independence
Was Muslim but not a devoted believer; after he died his non-Muslim son took over the throne and was intolerant of Muslims; many people wanted to overthrow him
What leader did the Muslims support?
Askia Muhammad shared their beliefs; he overthrew Ali's son and declared Islam the state religion
Who was the Muslim Spaniard Judar Pasha?
Ruler of Morocco sent him and 4,000 soldiers on a five month journey across the Sahara where they discovered guns
Who destroyed the gold producing system?
What happened to the Songhai empire?
Became a series of military camps
What happened after Pasha destroyed the gold producing system?
North Africans lost interest in making Songhai a colony; stayed there for 150 years
What were Sundiata Keita and Sunni Ali?
Western Africa's two great empire builders; did not do enough to win propel over to Islam; concerned about stopping rebellions and spreading religion
What did Mansa Musa use the wealth of Mali for?
Building mosques; libraries at Timbuktu that collected books all over the Muslim world
Who was Muhammad Ture?
Took over government of Songhai; with support of Muslim townspeople he declared himself king; drove Sunni Ali's family from Songhai; took the name Askia
How many schools did Askia Muhammad set up to teach the Quran?
What are the four Ms?
Mansa Musa emperor of
Mali went on pilgrimage to
Mecca because he was
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