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Chapter 13: Meninges-spinal nerves
What is the membrane the CNS is surrounded by that lie between the bone and soft tissue?
dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater
Three layers of the meninges.
Outermost layer of meninges
What is the dura mater separated from the vertebrae by?
Middle layer of the meninges with a web-like structure
What is between the arachnoid and pia mater
What does the subarachnoid space contain
Innermost layer of the meninges
What hugs the surface of meninges and follows its irregular contours
Clear, colorless fluid
Total volume of CSF
supports, nourishes, provides a pathway for wastes
Functions of cerebrospinal fluid
What are the four cavities of the brain called?
Masses of blood capillaries in rain ventricles that produce CSF
What covers capillaries and form a cerebrospinal fluid barrier
CSF is reabsorbed by what?
Where does the spinal cord begin?
first and second lumbar vertebrae
Where does the spinal cord terminate between?
How many segments does the spinal cord consist of?
CNS to PNS
The spinal nerves connect what to what?
What is the thickening in the spinal cord in the neck region that supplies nerves to upper limbs
Thickening of the spinal cord in the lower back that gives off nerves to lower limbs.
Conical tapering of spinal equine
What arises at conus medullaris
The lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal nerves descent beyond the end of the cord forming a structure called what?
anterior median fissure and posterior medial sulcus
Two deep longitudinal grooves that divide the cord into right and left halves.
posterior horns and anterior horns
Gray matter is divided into right and left wings of gray matter called what?
Between posterior and anterior horns is a protrusion of gray matter called what?
Neurons with large cell bodies located in the anterior horns give rise to what that pass through spinal nerves to skeletal muscles
What is the horizonal bar of gray matter in the middle of the spinal cord which connects the right and left sides
What does the gray commissure surround that is filled with CSF
What is a majority of gray matter in the spinal cord
anterior, posterior, lateral
Three regions that gray matter divides while matter of the spinal cord into
Each funiculus consists of longitudinal bundles of myelinated nerve fibers that comprise major nerve pathways called what?
What enters posterior cord
Dorsal root of ganglia are masses of what?
What exits the anterior cord
What do anterior and posterior roots form?
transmit nerve impulses and house spinal reflexes
Two major functions of spinal cord?
What part of the spinal cord provides communication between the brain and PNS
Tracts that carry information to the brain
Tracts that conduct motor impulses away from the brain
What are the nerve fibers within the ascending and descending tracts?
cord-like bundle of nerve fibers held together by layers of connective tissue
Nerves that conduct impulses into the brain and spinal cord
nerves that carry impulses to muscles or glands
nerves that include both sensory and motor