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What is the membrane the CNS is surrounded by that lie between the bone and soft tissue?

dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater

Three layers of the meninges.

dura mater

Outermost layer of meninges

epidural space

What is the dura mater separated from the vertebrae by?

arachnoid mater

Middle layer of the meninges with a web-like structure

subarachnoid space

What is between the arachnoid and pia mater

cerebrospinal fluid

What does the subarachnoid space contain

pia mater

Innermost layer of the meninges

pia mater

What hugs the surface of meninges and follows its irregular contours

cerebrospinal fluid

Clear, colorless fluid

80-150 ml

Total volume of CSF

supports, nourishes, provides a pathway for wastes

Functions of cerebrospinal fluid


What are the four cavities of the brain called?

choroid plexus

Masses of blood capillaries in rain ventricles that produce CSF

ependymal cells

What covers capillaries and form a cerebrospinal fluid barrier

arachnoid vili

CSF is reabsorbed by what?

foramen magnum

Where does the spinal cord begin?

first and second lumbar vertebrae

Where does the spinal cord terminate between?


How many segments does the spinal cord consist of?


The spinal nerves connect what to what?

cervical enlargement

What is the thickening in the spinal cord in the neck region that supplies nerves to upper limbs

lumbar enlargement

Thickening of the spinal cord in the lower back that gives off nerves to lower limbs.

conus medullaris

Conical tapering of spinal equine

filum terminale

What arises at conus medullaris

cauda equine

The lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal nerves descent beyond the end of the cord forming a structure called what?

anterior median fissure and posterior medial sulcus

Two deep longitudinal grooves that divide the cord into right and left halves.

posterior horns and anterior horns

Gray matter is divided into right and left wings of gray matter called what?

lateral horn

Between posterior and anterior horns is a protrusion of gray matter called what?

motor fibers

Neurons with large cell bodies located in the anterior horns give rise to what that pass through spinal nerves to skeletal muscles

gray commissure

What is the horizonal bar of gray matter in the middle of the spinal cord which connects the right and left sides

central canal

What does the gray commissure surround that is filled with CSF


What is a majority of gray matter in the spinal cord

anterior, posterior, lateral

Three regions that gray matter divides while matter of the spinal cord into

nerve tracts

Each funiculus consists of longitudinal bundles of myelinated nerve fibers that comprise major nerve pathways called what?

sensory nerves

What enters posterior cord

cell bodies

Dorsal root of ganglia are masses of what?

Motor nerves

What exits the anterior cord

spinal nerves

What do anterior and posterior roots form?

transmit nerve impulses and house spinal reflexes

Two major functions of spinal cord?

nerve tracts

What part of the spinal cord provides communication between the brain and PNS

ascending tracts

Tracts that carry information to the brain

descending tracts

Tracts that conduct motor impulses away from the brain


What are the nerve fibers within the ascending and descending tracts?


cord-like bundle of nerve fibers held together by layers of connective tissue

sensory nerves

Nerves that conduct impulses into the brain and spinal cord

motor nerves

nerves that carry impulses to muscles or glands

mixed nerves

nerves that include both sensory and motor

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