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AP Government Chapters 1 & 11 Vocab
Terms in this set (41)
The institution through which public policies are made for a society
Ex. the United States
Goods and services that by their nature cannot be denied to anyone
Ex. clean air and clean water
The process determining the leaders we select and the policies they pursue. Politics produces authoritative decisions about public issues
Ex. the presidential election
All the activities by which citizens attempt to influence the selection of political leaders and the policies they pursue.
Ex. Voting, contacting public officials, protest, and civil disobedience
Groups that have narrow interest on which their members and to take an uncompromising stance
The process by which policy comes into being and evolves. People's interests, problems, and concerns create political issues for government policymakers. These issues shape policy, which in turn impacts people, generating more interests, problems, and concerns
Ex. when president and staff draft a new crime bill
Political channels through which people's concerns become political issues on the policy agenda.
Ex. political parties, elections, interest groups, the media
Several issues that capture the serious attention of political officials and other figures in politics at a given time.
Ex. National Council of Nonprofits
An issue that arises when people disagree about a problem and how to fix it
Ex. Environmental issues
The branches of the US Government charted with taking action on political issues.
Ex. The U.S constituiton established three policy making instituitons- the congress, the presidency, and the courts.
A choice that government makes in response to a political issue. A policy is a course of action taken with regard to some problem
Ex. Minimum Wage laws
The effects a policy had on people and the problems. Impacts are analyzed to see how well a policy has met its goal and at what cost.
Ex. How go green policies effect local and big businesses
A system of selecting policymakers and of organizing government so that policy represents and responds to the public's preferences.
Ex. The U.S. where we elect a president and members of the Congress. We also elect local and state officials.
A fundamental principle of traditional democratic theory, in a democracy, choosing amongst alternatives requires that the majority be respected
Ex. In order to be elected president of the United States, a candidate must achieve a majority of votes in the Electoral College.
A principle of traditional democratic theory that guarantees rights to those who do not belong to majorities
Ex. the majority can must give minority basic human rights
A basic principle of traditional democratic theory that describes the relationship be tween the few leaders and the many followers
Ex. House of Representatives being elected by the people to represent the population of each state
Democratic theory that states that the government is comprised of several different groups that compete to reach compromise, no one group dominating another.
Ex. Many cities in the United States have areas referred to as Little Italy or Chinatown, where people from those countries keep their cultural traditions.
A theory of American democracy contending that an upper-class elite holds the power and makes policy, regardless of the formal governmental organization
Ex. Students who graduate from high-status schools like Harvard and Yale have better job opportunities than students from lower status schools.
Democratic theory that states that he government is comprised of several groups, all of which are too strong, which leads to muddled policy and gridlock --- the government suffers because of groups
Ex. The stance on abortion or gay marriage, pertaining to the state's constitution. Some states are passing laws either allowing gay marriage or banning it.
A condition that occurs when interests conflict and no coalition is strong enough to form a majority and establish policy, so nothing gets done
Ex. Congressmen had filibuster
An overall set of values widely shared within a society
Ex. Democrats and Republicans can have the same but still have very different political beliefs
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
The sum total of the value of all the goods and services produced in a year in a nation
Ex. The Department of Commerce releases data for the U.S. economy on a quarterly basis at 8:30 am EST on the last business day of the next quarter.
Those individuals who already hold office. In congressional elections, incumbents usually win
Ex. Anyone who has already been elected in the Senate of House and are getting reelected
Activities of members of Congress that help constituents as individuals, particularly by cutting through bureaucratic red tape to get people what they think they have a right to get
Ex. Having trouble getting Social Security check, call Congressman to cut the red tape and make it happen faster
Federal projects, grants, and contracts available to state and local governments, businesses, colleges, and other institutions in a congressional district
Ex. Montana State University was awarded more than $740,000 to research the use of sheep grazing as a means of weed control.
A legislature divided into two houses.
Ex. The US Congress and all state legislatures except Nebraska
House Rules Committee
The committee in the House of Representatives that reviews most bills coming from a House committee before they go to the full House
A strategy unique to the Senate whereby opponents of a piece o legislation use their right to unlimited debate to prevent the Senate from ever voting on a bill. Sixty members present and voting can halt a filibuster on legislation
Ex. Parks and Rec- stay in court for 6 hours to prevent the selling of land for a park
Speaker of the House
An office mandated by the Constitution. The Speaker is chosen in practice by the majority party, has both formal and informal powers, and is second in line (after the Vice President) to succeed to the president should that office become vacant
Ex. John Boehner
the principle partisan ally of the Speaker of the House or the majority party's manager in the Senate. Responsible for scheduling bills, influencing committee assignments, and rounding up votes on behalf of the party's legislative positions.
Ex. Senate- Harry Reid
Party leaders who work with the majority leader or minority leader to count votes beforehand and lean on waverers whose votes are crucial to the passage of a bill favored by the party.
Ex. The current leaders are Republican Majority Leader Mitch McConnell of Kentucky and Democratic Minority Leader Chuck Schumer of New York
The principle leader of the minority party on the House of Representatives or in the Senate
Ex. Leader Nancy Pelosi, of the United States House of Representatives serves as floor leader of the opposition party, and is the counterpart to the Majority Leader
Committees in each house of Congress that handle bills in different policy areas
Ex. Aging (Special Committee) Ethics (Select Committee) Indian Affairs (Other Committee) Intelligence (Select Committee)
Congressional committees on a few subject-matter areas with membership drawn from both houses
Ex. House. Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. Standards of Official Conduct
Congressional committees formed when the Senate and the House pass a particular bill in different forms. Party leadership appoints members from each house to iron out the difference and bring back a single bill.
Ex. need to be a bill passed to elect new sergeant general so one bill passed in house on in senate and this committee smooths out any differences
Congressional committees appointed for a specific purpose
Ex. Watergate investigation
Congress's monitoring of the executive branch bureaucracy and its administration of policy, performed mainly through committee hearings.
Committee Chairs `
Through their leadership of the committees, committee chairs have important influence on the congressional agenda. They play the dominant rule in scheduling hearings, hiring staff, appointing subcommittees, and managing committees when they are brought before the full house.
Ex. John Boozemen
A simple rule for picking committee chairs, in effect until the 1970s. The member who had served on the committee the longest and whose party controlled the chamber became chair, regardless of party loyalty, mental state, or competence.
Ex. person there longer so he gets job
A group of members of Congress sharing some interest or characteristic. Many are composed of members from both parties and from both houses.
Ex.`Iowa which, since 1972, have been the first major electoral event in the long process of nominating Republican and Democratic presidential candidates.
A proposed law, drafted in legal language. Anyone can draft a bill, but only a member of the House of Representatives of the Senate formally submit a bill of consideration.
Ex. Clean air and water bill
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