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249 terms

medical terminology

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diacritical marks
marks indicating the pronunciation of a vowel
macron
indicates the long sound of a vowel
breve
indicates the short sound of a vowel
word root
the core of a medical term containing the fundamental meaning of the word
greek word roots
used to build words that describe a disease, condition, treatment, or diagnosis (a problem of cure)
latin word roots
used to build words that describe anatomic structures (anatomy)
combining form
a word root with an added vowel (usually o) had been added
suffix
a word element placed at the end of a word or word root that changes the meaning of the word
prefix
a word element attached to the beginning of a word or word root changing the meaning of the word
suffix
usually indicates a procedure, condition, disease, or part of speech
prefix
prepares us by indicating a number, time, position, direction, or negation
4 elements of a medical word
word root, combining form, suffix, and prefix
how to define a medical word
define the suffix, define the prefix, then define the middle part of the word
dermatomycosis
abnormal skin fungus
-osis
abnormal
dermat
skin
myc
fungus
types of suffixes
surgical; diagnostic; pathological and related; adjective, noun, or diminutive suffix
surgical suffix
describes a type of invasive procedure performed on a body part
diagnostic suffix
denotes a procedure or test performed to identify the cause and nature of an illness
pathological and related suffixes
describes an abnormal condition or disease
adjective, noun, or diminutive suffixes
these identify, describe, or provide smaller versions of a word
-centesis
surgical procedure (arthrocentesis)
-clasis
to break; surgical fracture (osteoclasis)
-desis
binding or fixation of a bone or joint (arthrodesis)
-ectomy
excision, removal (lumpectomy)
-lysis
separation, destruction, loosening
-plasty
surgical repair (plastic surgery)
-rrhaphy
suture (myorrhaphy)
-stomy
forming an opening (tracheostomy)
-tome
instrument to cut (osteotome)
-tomy
incision (tracheotomy)
-tripsy
crushing (lithotripsy)
-gram
record, writing (electrocardiogram)
-graph
instrument for recording
-graphy
process of recording (angiography)
-meter
instrument for measuring (thermometer)
-metry
act of measuring (geometry)
-scope
instrument for examining (endoscope)
-scopy
visual examination (endoscopy)
-algia
pain
-dynia
pain or ache
-cele
hernia or swelling
-ectasis
dilation, expansion
-edema
swelling
-emesis
vomiting
-emia
blood condition (anemia)
-gen or genesis
forming, producing, origin (think of genesis..the beginning)
-iasis or -osis
abnormal condition
-itis
inflammation
-lith
stone, calculus (lithotripsy)
-malacia
softening
-megaly
enlargement
-oma
tumor (lymphoma)
-osis
abnormal condition (cyanosis)
-pathy
disease (idiopathy)
-penia
decrease, deficiency (hydropena)
-phagia
eating, swallowing (dysphagia)
-phasia
speech (aphasia)
-phobia
fear
-plasia or plasm
formation, growth
-plegia
paralysis (paraplegia)
-ptosis
prolapse, downward displacement
-rrhage or -rrhagia
bursting of (hemorrhage)
-rrhea
discharge, flow (diarrhea)
-rrhexis
rupture
-sclerosis
abnormal condition or hardening (arteriosclerosis)
-spasm
involuntary contraction, twitching
-stenosis
narrowing, stricture
-toxic
poison
-trophy
nourishment, development
-ac (cardiac)
pertaining to (the heart)
-al (neural)
pertaining to (a nerve)
-ar (muscular)
pertaining to (muscle)
-ary (pulmonary)
pertaining to (the lungs)
-eal (esophageal)
pertaining to (the esophagus)
-ic (thoracic)
pertaining to (the chest)
-ical (pathological)
pertaining to (the study of disease)
-ile (penile)
pertaining to (the penis)
-ior ( posterior)
pertaining to (the back of the body)
-ous (cutaneous)
pertaining to (the skin)
-tic (acoustic)
pertaining to (hearing)
-esis (diuresis)
condition ( abnormal secretion of large amounts of urine)
-ia (pneumonia)
condition (infection of the lung)
-ism (hyperthyroidism)
condition (characterized by overactivity of the thyroid gland)
-iatry
medicine; treatment
-ician
specialist
-ist
specilaist
-y
condition; process
-icle (ventricle)
small, minute (smal cavity)
-ole (arteriole)
small, minute (the smallest of the arteries)
-ule (venule)
small, minute (small vein continuous with a capillary)
pre-
before or in front of
epi-
above, upon
hypo-
under, below, deficient
infra- or sub-
under, below
inter-
between
post-
after, behind
pre- or pro-
before, in front of
retro-
backward, behind
bi-
two (bifocals)
dipl- or diplo-
double
hemi-
one half (hemisphere)
hyper-
excessive, above normal (hyperactive)
macro-
large
micro-
small (microscope)
mono- or uni-
one (unicycle)
multi- or poly-
many, much (polygamist)
primi-
first
quadri-
four (quadriceps)
tri-
three (triangle)
ab-
away from (abduction0
ad-
toward (adduction)
circum- or peri-
around (perimeter)
dia- or trans-
through, across (transparent)
ecto- or exo- or extra-
outside, outward (ectoskeleton)
endo- or intra-
in, within (intracellular)
para-
near, beside, beyond
super-
upper, above (superior)
supra-
above, excessive, superior
ultra-
excess, beyond (ultrasensitive)
a- or an-
without, not
anti- or contra-
against
brady-
slow (bradycardia)
dys-
bad, painful, difficult (dyslexia)
eu-
good, normal (euphoria)
hetero-
different (heterosexual)
homo-
same (homosexual)
mal-
bad
pan-
all (pandemic)
pseudo-
false (pseudo-pregnancy)
syn-
union, together, joined (synergy)
tachy-
rapid (tachycardia)
levels of organization
cell, tissue, organs, system, organism
cell
cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus
epithelial tissue
lining of organs, structures, canals- forms tubes
connective tissue
supports or connects other tissues and organs
muscle tissue
contractile tissue
nervous tissue
transmits electrical impulses
organ
composed of two or more tissues that perform specialized functions
system
composed of varying numbers of organs and accessory structures that have similar functions
organism
highest level of organization (complete living entity)
cyto/o
cell
hist/o
tissue
midsagittal plane
divides body into right and left halves
coronal or frontal plane
divides body into anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) aspects
transverse or horizontal plane
divides body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) aspects
dorsal cavity
contains central core of body, brain, and spinal cavities
ventral cavity
contains thoracic and abdominopelvis cavities
thoracic cavity
heart, lungs, and associated structures
abdominopelvic cavity
digestive excretory and reproductive organs and structures
quadrants
4 divisions of the lower torso (RUQ, LUQ, RLQ, LLQ)
epigastric
above the stomach
lumbar
loin region
inguin
groin
cervical
neck region
thoracic
chest region
sacral
lower back region
coccyx
tailbone
abduction
moving away from the midline
adduction
moving toward the midline
medial
toward midline of the body
lateral
toward outside of the body
superior
toward head or upper portion
inferior
away from the head or toward lower portion
proximal
nearer to the center or to the point of attachment
distal
away from the center
anterior
toward front (ventral)
posterior
toward back (dorsal)
parietal
outer wall of the body cavity
visceral
pertaining to the viscera, internal organs
prone
lying horizontally with the face downward or indicating the hand with palms facing downward
supine
lying on back with face upward, or indicating hand with palm facing upward
inversion
turning inward or inside out
eversion
turning outward
palmar
pertaining to the palm of the hand
plantar
pertaining to the sole of the foot
superficial
toward surface of the body
deep
away from surface of body
nucle/o or kary/o
nucleus
anter/o
anterior, front
caud/o
tail
crani/o
cranium
dist/o
far, farthest
dors/o
back of body
infer/o
lower, back
later/o
side
medi/o
middle
poster/o
back of body, behind, posterior
proxim/o
near, nearest
ventr/o
belly, belly side
abdomin/o
abdomen
cervic/o
neck
crani/o
cranium (skull)
gastr/o
stomach
ili/o
ilium
inguin/o
groin
lumb/o
loins (lower back)
umbilic/o
naval
pelv/i or pelv/o
pelvis
spin/o
spine
thorac/o
chest
albin/o or leuk/o
white
chlor/o
green
chrom/o
color
cirrh/o or jaund/o or xanth/o
yellow
cyan/o
blue
erythr/o
red
melan/o
black
poli/o
gray, gray matter
acr/o
extremity
eti/o
cause
fasci/o
band, fascia
idi/o
unknown, peculiar
morph/o
form, shape, structure
path/o
disease
radi/o
radiation, x-ray, radius
somat/o
body
son/o
sound (sonogram)
viscer/o
internal organs
xer/o
dry
-logy
study of
-logist
specialist in the study of
-genesis
forming, producing, origin
-gnosis
knowing (diagnosis)
-gram
record, writing
-graph
instrument for writing
-graphy
process of recording
adhesion
abnormal fibrous band that holds or binds together tissues that are normally separated
analyte
substance analyzed or tested
dehiscence
bursting open of a wound
febrile
feverish
homeostasis
internal state of balance
morbid
diseased
sepsis
pathalogical state resulting from microorganisms in blood stream
suppurative
associated with producing puss
endoscopy
scoping body cavity
laparoscopy
scoping pelvis and or abdomen
thoracoscopy
scoping lung-related anatomy
fluoroscopy
radiographic x-rays directed through the body to a fluorescent screen
computed tomography scan (CT Scan)
rotating x-ray emitter
doppler
ultrasound technique
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
radiowaves and magnetic field rather than x-ray
nuclear scan
radioactive material
positron emission tomography (PET Scan)
records positive charged particles in the brain and nervous system
radiography
x ray
single photon emission comuted tomography (SPECT Scan)
combination of CT Scan and radioactive material injected into bloodstream to track blood flow to tissue
tomography
radiographic technique that produces a cross-sectioned image, or slice of an area
ultrasonography
sound waves