64 terms

Civil War

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Fort Sumpter
Where first shot was fired that began the civil war.
Election of 1860
Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party was split over slavery. As a result, the South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a number of states seceded from the Union.
Battle of Gettysburg
Turning point of the War that made it clear the North would win. 50,000 people died, and the South lost its chance to invade the North.
Battle of Bull Run
July 21, 1861. Va. (outside of D.C.) People watched battle. Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson: Confederate general, held his ground and stood in battle like a "stone wall." Union retreated. Confederate victory. Showed that both sides needed training and war would be long and bloody
Sherman's march to the Sea
during the civil war, a devastating total war military campaign, led by union general William Tecumseh Sherman, that involved marching 60,000 union troops through Georgia from Atlanta to Savannah and destroying everything along there way.
Battle of Antietam
Civil War battle in which the North succeeded in halting Lee's Confederate forces in Maryland. Was the bloodiest battle of the war resulting in 25,000 casualties
Appomattox Court House
Famous as the site of the Battle of Appomattox Courthouse, where the surrender of the Confederate Army under Robert E. Lee To Ulysses S. Grant took place on April 9, 1865
States rights
the right of states to limit the power of the federal government
Battle of Vicksburg
1863, Union gains control of Mississippi, confederacy split in two, Grant takes lead of Union armies, total war begins
Emancipation Proclamation
(AL) , Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
Gettysburg Address
A 3-minute address by Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War (November 19, 1963) at the dedication of a national cemetery on the site of the Battle of Gettysburg
Advantages of the North in the Civil War
a)larger population, b)most of the factories to make supplies, c)most of the railroads located in the north, d)strong Navy, e)more money, f)they had an established government
Advantages of the South in the Civil War
Excellent millitary leaders, strong fighting spirit, knew the land
Dred Scott Decision
A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.
Abraham Lincoln
16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth (1809-1865)
Abraham Lincoln
16th president of the United States; helped preserve the United States by leading the defeat of the secessionist Confederacy; an outspoken opponent of the expansion of slavery.
Abraham Lincoln
(1809-1865) Sixteenth president of the United States, he promoted equal rights for African Americans in the famed Lincoln- Douglas debates. He issued the Emancipation Proclamation and set in motion the Civil War, but he was determined to preserve the Union. He was assassinated in 1865.
Abraham Lincoln
1858- Lincoln ran for US Senate as Republican against Douglas felt it was the obligation of Americans to prevent the spread of slavery and believed African Americans deserved rights enumerated in the Declaration Republican
Jefferson Davis
President of the Confederate States of America
John Wilkes Booth
Assassinated Abraham Lincoln
Lincoln's First inaugural
Secession of the South was illegal and his goal was to preserve the union
Lincoln's Second inaugural
Lincoln won the election of 1864 and won. In his speech he said he wanted to mend the nations wounds and establish lasting peace.
Republican Party
Political party that believed in the non-expansion of slavery & consisted of Whigs, N. Democrats, & Free-Soilers in defiance to the Slave Powers
Robert E. Lee
Appointed command of the Confederate Army in 1862 during the Civil War. Despite his skill he was forced to surrender to Ulysses S Grant at Appomattox Courthouse in 1865.
Stonewall Jackson
Brave commander of the Confederate Army that led troops at Bull Run. He died in the confusion at the Battle of Chancellorsville.
Ulysses S. Grant
Union General who forced the surrender of Vicksburg and became general in chief of all Union armies he forced lee to fight a series of decisive battles which led to the Confederate surrender
Reconstruction
1865-1877; the attempt to rebuild and reform the political, social, and economic systems of the South after the Civil War.
13th Amendment
Abolished slavery. First of three "Reconstruction Amendments" passed after Civil War (1865-70)
14th Amendment
1) Citizenship for African Americans, 2) Repeal of 3/5 Compromise, 3) Denial of former confederate officials from holding national or state office, 4) Repudiate (reject) confederate debts
15th Amendment
Citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
Reconstruction Amendments
13th: abolished and continues to prohibit slavery and involuntary servitude, 14th: secured the rights of former slaves after reconstruction, 15th: prohibits each government in the United States to prevent a citizen from voting based on their race
Andrew Johnson
17th President of the United States, A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.
Radical Republicans
After the Civil War, a group that believed the South should be harshly punished and thought that Lincoln was sometimes too compassionate towards the South.
Black Codes
Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves
Carpetbaggers
A northerner who went to the South immediately after the Civil War; especially one who tried to gain political advantage or other advantages from the disorganized situation in southern states
Scallywags
Southern whites who gained political office during Reconstruction
Civil Rights Bill of 1866
A bill passed by Congress in March 1866 as a measure against the Black Codes to reinforce black rights to citizenship. It was vetoed by Johnson and was later passed as the 14th Amendment.
Freedman's Bureau
Fed. agency set up to help former slaves after the Civil War; focus was to provide food, medical care, administer justice, manage abandoned & confiscated property, regulate labor, and establish schools.
Hiram Rhodes
Born free in North Carolina and educated in Illinois, this Methodist minister served as a chaplain in the Union Army, and in 1870, became the first African American elected to the US Senate.
Homestead Act
1862 - Provided free land in the West to anyone willing to settle there and develop it. Encouraged westward migration.
Ku Klux Klan
A secret society created by white southerners in 1866 that used terror and violence to keep African Americans from obtaining their civil rights.
Share cropping
african americans and poor whites would work on a land owned by another in return for small pay or some crops
Transcontinental Railroad
Completed in 1869 at Promontory, Utah, it linked the eastern railroad system with California's railroad system, revolutionizing transportation in the west
Missouri Compromise
"Compromise of 1820" over the issue of slavery in Missouri. It was decided Missouri entered as a slave state and Maine entered as a free state and all states North of the 36th parallel were free states and all South were slave states.
Kansas Nebraska
1854 - Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.
Compromise of 1850
(1) California admitted as free state, (2) territorial status and popular sovereignty of Utah and New Mexico, (3) resolution of Texas-New Mexico boundaries, (4) federal assumption of Texas debt, (5) slave trade abolished in DC, and (6) new fugitive slave law; advocated by Henry Clay and Stephen A. Douglas
Uncle Tom's Cabin
written by harriet beecher stowe in 1853 that highly influenced england's view on the American Deep South and slavery. a novel promoting abolition. intensified sectional conflict.
Dred Scott v. Sanford
Supreme Court case that decided US Congress did not have the power to prohibit slavery in federal territories and slaves, as private property, could not be taken away without due process - basically slaves would remain slaves in non-slave states and slaves could not sue because they were not citizens
Worcester v. Georgia
Supreme Court Decision - Cherokee Indians were entitled to federal protection from the actions of state governments which would infringe on the tribe's sovereignty - Jackson ignored it
Marbury v. Madison
Established judicial review
Lincoln-Douglas debates
1858 Senate Debate, Lincoln forced Douglas to debate issue of slavery, Douglas supported pop-sovereignty, Lincoln asserted that slavery should not spread to territories, Lincoln emerged as strong Republican candidate
Freeport Doctrine
Idea authored by Stephen Douglas that claimed slavery could only exist when popular sovereignty said so
John Brown's raid
Began when he and his men took over the arsenal in Harpers Ferry, Virginia, in hopes of starting a slave rebellion.
The Confederate States of America
the name given to the new nation and government when delegates from the states of South Carolina, Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, and Georgia seceded from the Union; they elected Jefferson Davis as their President
Border States
in the civil war the states between the north and the south: delaware, mayland, kentucky, and missouri
Ironclads
Wooden ships with metal armor that were employed by both sides during the Civil War.
54th Massachusetts
first African American unit to fight a battle, to show the other soldiers that they could fight
Copperheads
A group of northern Democrats who opposed abolition and sympathized with the South during the Civil War
Clara Barton
Nurse during the Civil War; founder of the American Red Cross
Total War
all-out war that affects civilians at home as well as soldiers in combat
Ten Percent Plan
Lincoln's plan that allowed a southern state to form a new government after 10 percent of its voters swore an oath of loyalty to the United States
Impeachment
The bringing of formal charges against a public official
Jim Crow Laws
Laws designed to enforce segregation of blacks from whites
Buffalo soldiers
Name given to African American soldiers who served in the U.S. Army on the western frontier and fought in the Indian Wars (1854-1890).

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