Civics EOC Review
For use for review for End of Course Examination - flashcards and cooperative boxes.
Terms in this set (50)
Gave us a two-house Legislature, made Congress bicameral (2-houses)- Senate (100-Equal) and House of Representatives (435 - based on population)
colonial document that established direct democracy,
Sons of Liberty
group of colonists who damaged the property of Great Britain in a purposeful raid
Name for a governmental system that divides the power structure between a central government and a state government. (How our government is divided) - levels of government: local, state, national
Written document/pamphlet by Thomas Paine who made a case for independence of Colonies from Great Britain (to become America)
Bill of Rights
First 10 changes made to the Constitution, individual rights, Anti Federalists refused to ratify Constitution until the rights of individuals were clearly listed. (note) - Voltaire... Amend I
They opposed the ratification of the Constitution because it gave more power to the federal government and less to the states, and because it did not ensure individual rights. Many wanted to keep the Articles of Confederation. The Antifederalists were instrumental in obtaining passage of the Bill of Rights as a prerequisite to ratification of the Constitution in several states. After the ratification of the Constitution, the Antifederalists regrouped as the Democratic-Republican (or simply Republican) party.
Magna Carta (how it laid foundation for American Democracy/Law)
Nobles forced the king to sign the document-limiting the power of monarch (limited monarchy) also established social contract
Common Law (how it laid foundation for American Democracy/Law)
Law from custom, tradition and judicial decisions - ideas of a legal system
English Bill of Rights (how it laid foundation for American Democracy/Law)
Limits power of the monarch (limited government) - Idea that people have rights and they are recorded
House of Burgesses (how it laid foundation for American Democracy/Law)
First legislature in the New World - in Virginia, 1st colonial attempt at self government
Mayflower Compact (how it laid foundation for American Democracy/Law)
1st written colonial constitution-social contract of the Pilgrims - direct democracy (everyone participated)
French and Indian War (Explain how it caused or influenced the American Revolutionary War)
War from 1756-1763 between France and Great Britain for supremacy in North America (caused colonial heavy taxation-led to American Revolution)
Proclamation of 1763 (Explain how it caused or influenced the American Revolutionary War)
British statement that colonists could not settle west of the Appalachian Mountains (King feared he could not control colonists if they became to spread out) looked to contain colony
Quartering Act (Explain how it caused or influenced the American Revolutionary War)
British 1760's law requiring colonists to supply the basic needs of the British soldiers (3rd Amendment now protects citizens from quartering soldiers)
Stamp Act (Explain how it caused or influenced the American Revolutionary War)
British law placing a tax on printed colonial matter: Paper products
Declatory Act (Explain how it caused or influenced the American Revolutionary War)
British act of Parliament declaring its right to tax and legislate over the colonies WITHOUT colonial representation ( "No taxation without representation.")
Boston Massacre (Explain how it caused or influenced the American Revolutionary War)
Violent confrontation between British troops and colonists. Crispus Attucks first Afr. Am. to die, 5 Colonists murdered
Boston Tea Party (Explain how it caused or influenced the American Revolutionary War)
Protests by the Sons of Liberty against the British. Colonists dressed up as Indians and threw tea overboard. Led by Samuel Adams.
Intolerable Acts/Coercive Acts (Explain how it caused or influenced the American Revolutionary War)
British laws in response to the Boston Tea Party (took away colonists' civil rights) - king's punishment so to speak
Common Sense (Explain how it caused or influenced the American Revolutionary War)
Pamphlet written by Thomas Paine, that called for independence fro Great Britain
Navigation Acts (Explain how it caused or influenced the American Revolutionary War)
British laws requiring that American goods be exported in British ships (mercantilism)
3 Main Ideas of the Declaration of Independence
1. Unalienable rights - life, liberty and pursuit of happiness
2. Grievances against the King of England-complaints. Listed the many abuses the colonists suffered under the British King (later a lot were seen in Bill of Rights)
3. Right to revolt because the treatment they had received under British rule contradicted the purpose of government.
Articles of Confederation
First attempt at government - FAILED - no strong central leader, no one to settle disputes among states, congress could not levy taxes.
Articles of Confederation (Weaknesses)
No president/executive branch, no single leader, could not enforce laws or taxes, no power to regulate trade, 9 out of 13 to make laws, all 13 to make changes.
Articles of Confederation (strengths)
United 13 colonies into the United States of America. Defeated the British, Solved the issue of the Northwest Territory with three laws: Land Ordinances and Northwest Ordinances.
-A red letter law by congress which stated that disputed land the Old Northwest was to be equally divided into townships and sold for federal income; promoted education and ended confusing legal disagreements over land
Enacted in 1787, it is considered one of the most significant achievements of the Articles of Confederation. It established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so they could eventually join the Union on an equal footing with the original 13 states.
1786- Led by Captain Daniel Shays, Revolutionary war veteran. An uprising that flared up in western Massachusetts. Impoverished back-country farmers, many of them Revolutionary war veterans, were losing their farms through mortgage foreclosures and tax delinquencies. They demanded cheap paper money, lighter taxes, and a suspension of mortgage fore closures. Hundreds of angry agitators attempted to enforce these demands. Massachusetts authorities, supported by wealthy citizens, raised a small army under General Lincoln. (SHOWED weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation)
Virginia Plan (Constitutional Convention: A bundle of Compromises)
..., Virginia delegate James Madison's plan of government, in which states got a number of representatives in Congress based on their population
New Jersey Plan (Constitutional Convention: A bundle of Compromises)
..., Opposite of the Virginia Plan, it proposed a single-chamber congress in which each state had one vote. This created a conflict with representation between bigger states, who wanted control befitting their population, and smaller states, who didn't want to be bullied by larger states.
Great Compromise (Connecticut Plan) (Constitutional Convention: A bundle of Compromises)
This is what we have today: 2houses of congress; one based on equal representation and one based on population.
3/5 Compromise (Constitutional Convention: A bundle of Compromises)
-each slave would count for 3/5 of a person for taxation and representation purposes
3/5 Compromise (North and Southern View Points) (Constitutional Convention: A bundle of Compromises)
North - did not want slaves to be counted for presentation in Congress....
South - slaves to be counted for representation in Congress (reminder- slaves were not considered "citizens.")
Supreme Court - (9 members - I chief Justice 8 Associate Justices) highest court in land, decides what is constitutional or unconstitutional (Judicial Review)- power to overturn a law made by Congress or an action by the President.
9 total members (1 chief Justice, 8 associate justices) appointed by sitting president, approved by the senate, life tenure
Level of Government that protects from Military Attack
Gideon v. Wainwright
a landmark case in United States Supreme Court history. In the case, the Supreme Court unanimously ruled that state courts are required under the Sixth Amendment of the Constitution to provide counsel in criminal cases for defendants unable to afford their own attorneys.
Marbury v. Madison
(1803) Marbury was a midnight appointee of the Adams administration and sued Madison for commission. Chief Justice Marshall said the law that gave the courts the power to rule over this issue was unconstitutional. established judicial review
Brown v. Bd of Education
Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson (separate but equal) sited it is unconstitutional to segregate students by race and it made minority students feel inferior.
juveniles have the right to counsel, to confront and examine accusers, and to have adequate notice of charges when confinement is a possible punishment
Gibbons v. Ogden
This case involved New York trying to grant a monopoly on waterborne trade between New York and New Jersey. Judge Marshal, of the Supreme Court, sternly reminded the state of New York that the Constitution gives Congress alone the control of interstate commerce. Marshal's decision, in 1824, was a major blow on states' rights.
The clause in the Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 1) that gives Congress the power to regulate all business activities that cross state lines or affect more than one state or other nations.
Article VI of the Constitution, which makes the Constitution, national laws, and treaties supreme over state laws when the national government is acting within its constitutional limits.
Miranda v. Arizona
1966 Supreme Court decision that sets guidelines for police questioning of accused persons to protect them against self-incrimination and to protect their right to counsel.
Plessy v. Ferguson
supreme court ruled that segregation public places facilities were legal as long as the facilites were equal
Civil Rights Act
1964; banned discrimination in public acomodations, prohibited discrimination in any federally assisted program, outlawed discrimination in most employment; enlarged federal powers to protect voting rights and to speed school desegregation; this and the voting rights act helped to give African-Americans equality on paper, and more federally-protected power so that social equality was a more realistic goal
declared that all persons born in the US were citizenship, that all citizens were entitled to equal rights and their rights were protected by due process
Texas v. Johnson
A 1989 case in which the Supreme Court struck down a law banning the burning of the American flag on the grounds that such action was symbolic speech protected by the First Amendment.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Period 3 APUSH Vocab
AP Gov. Chapter 2 Study Information
Chapter 2 politics
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Chapter 17: American Social Issues
Topic 15: The Sixties
Topic 7: Age of Revolutions
Topic 14: Postwar Prosperity and Civil Rights