32 terms


argument to the people
appeal to stirring symbols
sentimental appeals
tugging at one's emotions so one ignores the facts
appeal to ignorance
appeal based on something that the audience has no idea of knowing and therefore no way of refuting
appeal to irrational premises
appeals to reason that have no basis in logic
appeal that it is ok because every one is doing it
what is known is better that what is unknown;us vs them
red herring
shifting audience's attention from a crucial issue to an irrelevant 1
scare tactics
frightening people into agreement
appeal to force
making a threat,either emotionally or physically
appeal to pity
bringing pity to someone
argument by poetic language
sounds good,must be right
appeal to vanity
appealing to ones pride
pleasant sounding expression substituted for unpleasant expression,positive or neutral feeling/making something sound worse than it is
appeal to false authority
appealing to authority who is in expert in a different field or a non existing authority
appeal to unknown authority
don't cite the source,use vague resources that appear to cite sources
appeal to the masses
it must be true or right because everone thinks so
apeal to the person/ad hominem
attack the person's character rather than the person's argument/position
straw person
greatly oversimplyfing an opponent's argument to make it easier to refute
ending discussion because the speaker's beliefs are the only ones that are acceptable
moral equivalence
compares minor issues to major issues or vice versa
begging the question
support is a restatement of the claim in diff words
complex question
confront the opponent with a q that will put them in a bad light no matter how they respond
false dilemma/either-or
oversimplifying an issue to make it appear only 2 choices exist
suggesting one must take a side,similar but not identical to false dilemma
idea that if something cannot be done completely or perfectly, then it shouldn't be done at all
using to your advantage at least 2 diff definitions of the same term or concept
confusing correlation for cause
assuming that event x caused y because event x preceded event y
slippery slope
idea that once we take a step in a direction we don't like,we have to keep going
non sequitor
an illogical leap,a gap in chain of reason,use of irrelevant terms
hasty generalization
draws conclusion from incomplete evidence
faulty analogy
an innacurate or misleading comparison
proof surrogates
"obviously" "clearly"