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argument to the people

appeal to stirring symbols

sentimental appeals

tugging at one's emotions so one ignores the facts

appeal to ignorance

appeal based on something that the audience has no idea of knowing and therefore no way of refuting

appeal to irrational premises

appeals to reason that have no basis in logic


appeal that it is ok because every one is doing it


what is known is better that what is unknown;us vs them

red herring

shifting audience's attention from a crucial issue to an irrelevant 1

scare tactics

frightening people into agreement

appeal to force

making a threat,either emotionally or physically

appeal to pity

bringing pity to someone

argument by poetic language

sounds good,must be right

appeal to vanity

appealing to ones pride


pleasant sounding expression substituted for unpleasant expression,positive or neutral feeling/making something sound worse than it is

appeal to false authority

appealing to authority who is in expert in a different field or a non existing authority

appeal to unknown authority

don't cite the source,use vague resources that appear to cite sources

appeal to the masses

it must be true or right because everone thinks so

apeal to the person/ad hominem

attack the person's character rather than the person's argument/position

straw person

greatly oversimplyfing an opponent's argument to make it easier to refute


ending discussion because the speaker's beliefs are the only ones that are acceptable

moral equivalence

compares minor issues to major issues or vice versa

begging the question

support is a restatement of the claim in diff words

complex question

confront the opponent with a q that will put them in a bad light no matter how they respond

false dilemma/either-or

oversimplifying an issue to make it appear only 2 choices exist


suggesting one must take a side,similar but not identical to false dilemma


idea that if something cannot be done completely or perfectly, then it shouldn't be done at all


using to your advantage at least 2 diff definitions of the same term or concept

confusing correlation for cause

assuming that event x caused y because event x preceded event y

slippery slope

idea that once we take a step in a direction we don't like,we have to keep going

non sequitor

an illogical leap,a gap in chain of reason,use of irrelevant terms

hasty generalization

draws conclusion from incomplete evidence

faulty analogy

an innacurate or misleading comparison

proof surrogates

"obviously" "clearly"

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