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the study of the properties of matter and how matter changes

physical changes

changes that alter the form or appearance of a material but not a new substance

chemical changes

a change to matter that produces a new substance with new properties


the smallest particle of an element


the combination of two or more bonded atoms

chemical bond

the force that holds atoms together

chemical equation

a short, easy way to show a chemical reaction, using symbols instead of words

chemical symbols

represent elements using one or two letters

chemical formula

shows the ratio of elements in the compound


shows the number of atoms of an element in one molecule of a substance


the materials you have at the beginning of a reaction


the materials you have at the end of a reaction


arrow in a reaction which means "produces"

law of conservation of mass or matter

during a chemical reaction, matter is not created or destroyed; it is only changed

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