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Chapter 2 Glencoe Life Science

cell membrane

protective layer that protects
the cell and regulates interactions between the cell and the environment


gelatinlike material inside every cell, where most of a cell's life processes (chemical reactions) occur

prokaryotic cell

cell without membrane-bound structures

eukaryotic cell

cell with membrane-bound structures

cell wall

tough, rigid outer covering that protects the cells of plants, algae, fungi, and most bacteria (also gives it shape)


structure in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells


it directs all the cells activities (control center, usually the largest organelle in a cell


green organelles in the cytoplasm of plant cells that use light energy to make sugar from carbon dioxide and water


organelle where energy is released from broken-down food molecules (powerhouse)


small, two-part structures in cells that make proteins

endoplasmic reticulum

a series of folded membranes in which materials can be processed and moved around inside of the cell

golgi body

stacked, flattened membranes that sort proteins and other cellular substances and package them into areas inside the cell


stores water, waste products, food and other cellular materials


breaks down food molecules, cell wastes, and worn-out cell parts


a group of similar cells that work together to do one job


a structure made up of different types of tissues that work together


to increase the size of something

cell theory

summary of scientists' observations and conclusions about cells

1. all organisms are made up of one or more cells

2. the cell is the basic unit of organization in organisms

3. all cells come from cells


a condition that results from the disruption in function of one or more of an organism's normal processes


a strand of heriditary material surrounded by a protein coating

host cell

living cell in which a virus can enter to actively multiply or remain latent (inactive)

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