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21 terms

Cells Vocabulary

Chapter 2 Glencoe Life Science
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cell membrane
protective layer that protects
the cell and regulates interactions between the cell and the environment
cytoplasm
gelatinlike material inside every cell, where most of a cell's life processes (chemical reactions) occur
prokaryotic cell
cell without membrane-bound structures
eukaryotic cell
cell with membrane-bound structures
cell wall
tough, rigid outer covering that protects the cells of plants, algae, fungi, and most bacteria (also gives it shape)
organelle
structure in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells
nucleus
it directs all the cells activities (control center, usually the largest organelle in a cell
chloroplasts
green organelles in the cytoplasm of plant cells that use light energy to make sugar from carbon dioxide and water
mitochondrion
organelle where energy is released from broken-down food molecules (powerhouse)
ribosome
small, two-part structures in cells that make proteins
endoplasmic reticulum
a series of folded membranes in which materials can be processed and moved around inside of the cell
golgi body
stacked, flattened membranes that sort proteins and other cellular substances and package them into areas inside the cell
vacuole
stores water, waste products, food and other cellular materials
lysosome
breaks down food molecules, cell wastes, and worn-out cell parts
tissue
a group of similar cells that work together to do one job
organ
a structure made up of different types of tissues that work together
magnify
to increase the size of something
cell theory
summary of scientists' observations and conclusions about cells



1. all organisms are made up of one or more cells

2. the cell is the basic unit of organization in organisms

3. all cells come from cells
disease
a condition that results from the disruption in function of one or more of an organism's normal processes
virus
a strand of heriditary material surrounded by a protein coating
host cell
living cell in which a virus can enter to actively multiply or remain latent (inactive)