66 terms

Forage and Range Management Quiz 1

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Terms in this set (...)

Ecology
Study of energy flow and interactions among a group of organisms and their environment
Ecosystem
A living community and all its non-living environment
Agronomy
Principles and practices of crop production and field management.
Forb
Any herbaceous (non-woody) plant that is not a grass and not grass-like. i.e.: legume, broadleaf weed.
Herbage
Above ground biomass of herbaceous plants including grasses, grass-like plants, and forbs.
Browse
Leaf and twig growth of shrubs, woody vines, trees, and other non-herbaceous vegetation.
Forage
Edible parts of plants other than separated grains that can provide feed for an animal.
Range
Native vegetation predominates, low in productivity, not suited for growing crops, often grazed by wildlife as well as livestock.
Pasture
Area devoted to the grazing of forage. Typically planted grasses and forages.
Hay
Forage top growth that is cut and preserved by drying to less than 20%.
Silage
Forage that is chopped fresh, stored in the absence of air, and preserved by fermentation (~70% moisture).
Greenchop
Mechanically harvested forage before being fed to animals. AKA zero grazing.
Haylage
Forage with about 45% moisture (field wilted usually) chopped stored in absence of air and preserved by fermentation
Ecosystem services (Definition)
The broad array of benefits that people obtain from ecosystems
Essence of an ecosystem (2)
1.) Capture of solar energy by plants and transfer of energy as food to the succeeding levels of the food chain.
2.) At each transfer ~80-90% of energy is lost as heat.
Components of a grassland-livestock ecosystem (5)
1.) Non-living (abiotic)
2.) Plants
3.) Herbivores
4.) Carnivores
5.) Decomposers
Non-living/abiotic components of a grassland-livestock ecosystem (4)
1.) Water
2.) Air
3.) Soil
4.) Sunlight
Herbivore consumers of a grassland-livestock ecosystem (3)
1.) Livestock
2.) Wildlife
3.) Insects
Decomposers of a grassland-livestock ecosystem (4)
1.) Fungi
2.) Bacteria
3.) Earthworms
4.) Dung beetles
Interactions among components of an ecosystem (4)
1.) Plant-environment
2.) Plant-plant
3.) Plant-herbivore
4.) Plant-herbivore-decomposer
Plant-environment interactions (2)
1.) Environment determines what plants will be present
2.) Environment determines plant growth and nutrient status
Plant-plant interactions (2)
1.) Competition for resources
2.) Resources include light, water, and nutrients
Plant-herbivore interactions (2 types)
1.) Animal effects on plants
2.) Plant effects on animals
Animal effects on plants (4)
1.) Defoliation
2.) Selection
3.) Treading
4.) Nutrient distribution in animal waste
Plant effects on animals (2)
1.) Quantity of forage
2.) Quality of forage
Plant-herbivore-decomposer interactions (3)
1.) Extent of defoliation determines whether most nutrients cycle as dead plant material or animal wastes
2.) Change the forms of nutrients from less available to more available for plants
3.) Incorporate soil-surface nutrients into the soil reducing losses to the environment
Role of management in interactions among components of an ecosystem (4)
1.) Can alter the environment so specific plants may be grown
2.) Can make a type of plant more competitive with other plants
3.) Can affect how animals consume plants and whether the plants and animals will thrive
4.) Can determine the forms of organic matter decomposing in the pasture and populations of different types of decomposers.
Categories of ecosystem services (4)
1.) Provisioning
2.) Regulating
3.) Supporting
4.) Cultural
Provisioning (ex.)
food, water, timber, fiber, animal products
Regulating (ex.)
affect climate, water quality, erosion, floods, diseases
Supporting (ex.)
Soil formation, nutrient cycling, photosynthesis (plant growth)
Cultural (ex.)
recreational, spiritual, and aesthetic benefits
Roles of grassland-livestock ecosystems in Florida (4)
1.) Store carbon in the soil minimizing climate change affects
2.) Well-managed grasslands mean better water
3.) Well-managed grasslands provide habitat for ~2/3s of FL wildlife
4.) Well-managed grasslands provide opportunities for recreational activities
Contributions of grasslands to agriculture and society (4)
1.) Primary feed source for ruminant and other livestock production
2.) Provide alternative or rotation for row-cropping systems
3.) Legume forages fix atmospheric N adding significant quantities of N to the soil-plant-animal system
4.) Biomass for renewable energy
Grasslands are useful alternatives to rotation or row-cropping systems because (2)
1.) They maintain/enhance soil fertility
2.) Break pest cycles
Contributions of grasslands to the environment (6)
1.) Effective in soil and water conservation
2.) Soils under grasslands accumulate organic matter and serve as a buffer to minimize the increase in atmospheric CO2
3.) Provide habitat for wildlife
4.) Are an attractive feature of the natural landscape
5.) Serve as an excellent border between agricultural and urban areas
6.) Potential renewable energy source
Grasslands aid in soil and water conservation by (5)
1.) Limiting soil erosion
2.) Minimizing runoff in rainwater
3.) Reducing particulate matter in surface water
4.) Reducing the leaching of nutrients
5.) Minimizing the need for pesticide input
Types of grassland production systems (5)
1.) Forage crop production for harvesting
2.) Pastures sown with introduced forage species used for grazing
3.) Rangeland
4.) Agroforestry - trees for timber are grown with forage crops
5.) Integrate livestock-wildlife forage systems in which wildlife is harvested as a second crop
Rank the following in order of percentage of nutrients consumed from forages from highest to lowest:
1.) Beef cattle
2.) Dairy cattle
3.) Horses
4.) Sheep and Goats
5.) Swine
4, 1, 3, 2, 5
Rank the following in order of percentage of total concentrate consumed from highest to lowest:
1.) Beef cattle
2.) Dairy cattle
3.) Horses
4.) Sheep and Goats
5.) Poultry
6.) Swine
6, 1, 5, 2, 3, 4
Arguments agreeing that ruminant livestock production is inefficient and wasteful
1.) Takes more grain for ruminants to gain weight than non-ruminants
2.) Land used to grow grain for ruminants can be used for other crops
3.) Animal waste causes air pollution
Arguments disagreeing that ruminant livestock production is inefficient and wasteful
1.) Most of ruminant diet is forage
2.) Forage is often produced on land that cannot be used for other crops
3.) Nutrients in animal waste are good fertilizer
Rainfall distribution in Florida (2)
1.) Two dry periods (April-My and October-November)
2.) Dry periods are associated with transition between frontal rainfall (winter) and convectional rains (summer)
Solar radiation patterns (2)
1.) Maximum solar radiation is just before June
2.) Maximum solar radiation is associated with period of low rainfall thereby increasing water stress
Impact of soils on forage production (2)
1.) Drainage
2.) Fertility
Factors impacting drainage (3)
1.) Sandy soils
2.) Hard pan which is an organic complex occurring at varying levels in the soil surface that does not allow water to percolate through
3.) Water holding capacity
Soil fertility in Florida
Except for muck soils, soils in Florida are low in organic matter and clay which are the suppliers of soil nutrients. Naturally very acidic.
Impact of forage species on forage production (2)
1.) Yearly pattern of forage production in pastures
2.) Forage nutritive value
Yearly pattern of forage production in pastures (3)
1.) Typically have excess forage production in the summer (perennials love hot, humid environment)
2.) Spring and fall are periods most likely to be deficient in forage
3.) Summer is a poor time to make hay and silage because high rainfall makes it hard to dry and tropical grasses make low quality silage
Forage nutritive value: Effects on it (3)
1.) Species and maturity
2.) Most species in Florida are tropical or subtropical
3.) Florida lacks seed-propagated, persistent, perennial legumes (like alfalfa) closest thing we have is perennial peanut.
Impact of insects, other pests, and disease: Why are they issues in FL and examples (2)
1.) Florida's climate make it a haven for pests and disease (warmth and humidity especially summers)
2.) Spittlebug, loopers, fall armyworm, chinch bug, and mole crickets are most damaging
Impact of population pressures on land resource (2)
1.) Increasing population (more than 7x)
2.) Decreasing agriculture land (40%)
Environmental and political concerns of production community (5)
1.) Fertilizer management (P and N in water supply)
2.) Use of wetlands (do cattle pollute them?)
3.) Use of pesticides (safety concerns)
4.) Animal welfare
5.)Rural/urban ratio
Seed
A plant structure consisting of an embryonic plant, the food supply necessary for germination, and a protective coat.
Embryo
The rudimentary plantlet within a seed
Germination
The beginning of growth by an embryo
Cotyledon
Leaf that forms part of a seed embryo; in the case of a legume the major portion of the two halves of a seed that emerges from the soil; in grasses the cotyledon remains in the soil
Epicotyl
The stem of the young seedling above the cotyledon
Hypocotyl
The stem of the young seedling below the cotyledon
Radicle
The part of the seed which at initiation of germination becomes the root
Coleoptile
The sheath covering the first leaf of a grass seedling as it emerges from the soil
Plumule
Terminal bud of the embryo; in grasses it emerges from the coleoptile after the coleoptile emerges from the soil; in legumes emerges above the cotyledonary node
Seedling
The juvenile stage of a plant grown from seed
External conditions necessary for germination (4)
1.) Ample moisture
2.) Oxygen
3.) Suitable temperature
4.) Specific light conditions
Initial processes in germination (5)
1.) Seeds absorb water via process called imbibition
2.) Soluble nutrients are transported to growing sprout
3.) Proteins are broken down into amides and amino acids and incorporated into seedling proteins
4.) Fats are broken down by lipases and are used to form sugars and fats in the seedling
5.) Energy for the germination process is supplied by respiration, the biological oxidation of carbon and hydrogen into CO2 and H2O
Grass seedling emergence (7)
1.) Radicle emerges
2.) Coleoptile emerges
3.) Coleoptile pushes through soil by elongation of growing point below ground
4.) Coleoptile emerges from soil as pale tube-like structure that encloses the true leaf
5.) Slit develops at the tip of coleoptile and leaf emerges through it
6.) Photosynthesis begins; seedling establishes independence from stored food
7.) Cotyledon and apical meristem (growing point) remain below ground.