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Weathering, Erosion and the Rock Cycle
Terms in this set (60)
The breaking down of rocks and other materials on the Earth's surface.
Breaking down rocks through physical processes like freezing and thawing
Decomposition of rock - breaks rock but can also change color or dissolve rock (acid rain, lichens)
The lifting of rock or soil by the expansion of freezing water.
Process that splits rock when water seeps into cracks, then freezes and expands.
A hole in a road surface that results from gradual damage caused by weather and traffic - the result of physical weathering
A wearing away of rock by friction.
Cause physical weathering as plants grow. The roots will enter cracks in a rock and the pressure will crack the rock.
Processes by which rock, sand, and soil are broken down and carried away (i.e. weathering, glaciation)
the changing of landforms by slowly moving glaciers
Can be prevented by groins, sea walls, breakwaters, beach nourishment, planting grass, fences, and armoring beaches
Created by the wearing away of rock by running water (Colorado River) and wind for millions of years.
Formation of Long Island Sound
During the last Ice Age, glaciers pushed south carrying rocks and soil to Long Island. As the glacier melted, the fresh water lake became Long Island Sound as ocean water flowed into the area.
U shaped valley
A valley shaped by glaciers
V shaped valley
A valley that has a stream cutting down the middle with a very steep slope; the stream often forms because there is a lot of water runoff
The horizontal movement of air from an area of high pressure to an area of lower pressure - can cause erosion of sand and soil
organisms that cause chemical weathering of rock
The rock cycle
the loop that involves processes by which one type of rock changes to another
A type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions.
A type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together
Preserved remains or traces of ancient organisms often found in between layers of sedimentary rock
The process by which dissolved minerals crystalize and glue particles of sediment together into a rock
pressure and heat
How a metamorphic rock forms
rock that forms when magma cools and solidifies
A sedimentary rock formed by cementing grains of sand over time.
A dark, dense, igneous rock with a fine texture, found in oceanic crust
A usually light colored igneous rock that is found in continental crust
an example of metamorphic rock
Ridges found on the southern edges of rocks that were pushed and scraped by the movement of a glacier.
The Great Lakes
Formed by the melting of glaciers after the last Ice Age
Landform that results when a glacier deposits sediment as it moves
Accumulation of glacial sediment, deposited directly by glacier ice.
a mound or hill of sand-sized sediment deposited and shaped by the wind . Often manmade with sea grass planted to prevent erosion.
Hard stabilization structures built along the shoreline to prevent storm erosion
A irregular shaped rock formation that is affected by the cycle of freezing and thawing or frost wedging. Bryce Canyon is an example of this type of weathering.
the process by which sediments are pressed together under their own weight
Process in which sediment is laid down in new locations by running water, wave action or moving glaciers.
A sedimentary rock formed by the deposition of successive layers of clay.
the coarsest soil - particles are the largest
A loose mixture of rock fragments, organic material, water, and air that can support the growth of vegetation on the earth's crust
the finest soil - particles are the largest
type of sedimentary rock made of microfossils
a sedimentary rock consisting mainly of calcium that was deposited by the remains of marine animals
A type of igneous rock that contains air bubbles
natural features of the earth's surface
Rain containing acids that form in the atmosphere when industrial gas emissions (especially sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) combine with water. Causes faster chemical weathering than rain with a lower pH.
The corrosion of iron caused by oxidation - an example of chemical weathering
the erosion of a large mass of dirt and rock down a mountain or cliff caused by gravity, lack of vegetation, heavy rain, or earthquakes.
A great mass of ice, earth, or snow mixed with rocks sliding down a mountain - caused by gravity, melting, heavy snowfall or earthquakes
plant life that can prevent erosion on a hill
the dissolving of minerals from rocks in water during the process of chemical weathering
Study of land forms, the process that created them and the history of their development
A pier, or a structure built in water to protect a harbor or deflect a current. Usually built in pairs
A wall made of rocks or concrete that is built outward from a beach to reduce erosion
Movement of sediments parallel to shore, driven by wave energy.
Evidence of the tide line left on a beach as the tide recedes - shells, rocks, seaweed, grasses, sea animals, etc.
A tropical storm that has winds of about 119 kilometers per hour or higher. Causes an increase of weathering and erosion of landforms.
agents of erosion
wind, water, waves, glaciation and gravity
narrow canyon; steep, rocky
Dark-colored organic material in soil.
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