USHII Chapter 18
Terms in this set (48)
Why did European nations and Japan pursue imperialism?
desired raw materials and natural resources
What is an extractive economy?
economy where the colonizing, or imperial, colony removes raw materials and ships them back home to benefit its own economy
Why did the U.S. look to expand?
Surplus of goods, expanding trade into new overseas markets. Some Americans worried that if America remained isolated, it would not survive.
What is Social Darwinism?
certain nations and races were superior to others, destined to rule over inferior peoples and cultures.
How does Social Darwinism apply to imperialism?
Some Americans worried that if America remained isolated, and did not imperialise it would not survive. Nations that were felt to be inferior were imperialised
What was the result of Commodore Matthew Perry's arrival in Tokyo Bay?
In other words, what did he accomplish?
Negotiated a treaty that opened Japan to trade w/ U.S. Prior to this Japanese ports were closed off, leading to Japan falling behind in military technology
Why was Alaska referred to as "Seward's Folly" and "Seward's Icebox"?
It was believed to be useless
What changed our view of Seward's purchase?
It was rich in natural resources (timber, oil, and other resources) and doubled the size of America
What two major crises did American planters in Hawaii face in the early 1890s?
the sugar tax and the change of rule into the hands of Liliuokalani, who was against rich white settlers and changed the constitution that previously gave them political power
Why was Queen Liliuokalani such a threat to American planters?
She replaced the constitution that gave white settlers polticalpower
Why did President Cleveland refuse to sign the treaty of annexation of Hawaii?
Hawaiians did not want to be annexed
What is jingoism?
How did Yellow Press contribute to the Spanish-American War?
It riled up Americans, and caused national support for the war
What was the Teller Amendment?
It stated that the US would not annex Cuba
Who were the Rough Riders?
a group that followed TR, a volunteer cavalry unit.
What kind of help did the U.S. get against the Spanish in the Philippines?
What did the Treaty of Paris do?
officially ended the Spanish American war
What did Spain give up?
• Spain gave up control of Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Guam. and sold the Phillipines to the US for 20 mill
What did the Teller Amendment stop the U.S. from doing?
annexing Cuba, but not the Phillipines
What spurred the insurrection/rebellion against U.S. rule in the Philippines?
The decision of the US to hold control over the Philippines after the Spanish American War
How did the Filipino rebels fight against a much stronger U.S. military?
How did the United States react to the Filipino insurrection?
What were their actions reminiscent of?
gathered Filipino civilians into concentration camps, "kill and burn"
How did William Howard Taft maintain order and attempt to win the support of the Filipino people?
He censored the press and jailed dissidents, extended limited self rule and started construction on schools, roads and bridges
What improvements did William Howard Taft make to the Philippines?
ordered construction on schools, roads and bridges
What did the Jones Act (1916) pledge?
That the Philippines would eventually gain independence, didn't happen until after WWII
When did the Philippines gain independence?
What are spheres of influence?
Influence from another nation
Who had carved up China into spheres of influence?
What was the Open Door Policy?
The ability to trade openly
What was one of the main reasons behind the Boxer Rebellion?
secret Chinese societies targeted Western influences, in fear that their culture would eradicate their customs
How did President Roosevelt bring about the end of the Russo-Japanese War?
How was he rewarded?
negotiated peace between France and Russia, received a Nobel Peace Prize
What was the "Gentleman's Agreement" of 1907?
What were the events that led to it?
Japan would limit its emigration, US schools on the W coast would not segregate Asians; caused by US schools segregating Japanese students in school
What did the Foraker Act do?
Established a civil government in Puerto Rico
What were the Insular Cases?
series of Supreme Court cases declaring that Puerto Ricans did not have the same rights as US citizens
What was the Platt Amendment?
forced on Cuba by US, giving the US power over Cuban affairs (treaties, naval bases and intervention)
How did the U.S. get the Cubans to accept the Platt Amendment?
they wouldn't withdraw their troops if the amendment was not added
Why did the U.S. come up with the Platt Amendment?
They did not want Cuba to become a base for a hostile power bc they are so close in proximity
What is "big stick" diplomacy?
Provide examples of it in action.
TR; "speak softly and carry a big stick"; act diplomatic but have the strength to force people into doing what you want; emphasized military; "Good Will Cruise" aka Great White Fleet
Why was the U.S. interested in building a canal?
It would expedite and lessen travel costs from the W coast to the E
How did the U.S. gain access to the "Canal Zone" in Panama?
They bought the rights from a French company, then got permission from Colombia; when Colombia wanted too much money the US symbolically aided Panama, and rented the land for 250K a yr + 10 mill
Why is it an example of "big stick" diplomacy?
The Good Will Cruise, the presence of the US warships in Panama
What were conditions like during construction of the Panama Canal?
Plagued by disease (malaria)
What was critical to completion of the Panama Canal?
Doctors developing a vaccine for malaria and other scientific advances
What is "dollar diplomacy"?
Who is it associated with?
"dollars for bullets'; Taft; increasing American investment in foreign affairs (Latin America)
What is "moral diplomacy"?
Woodrow Wilson; promoting human rights above all else
How did Wilson's choice of William Jennings Bryan as Secretary of State send a message about his diplomatic intentions?
William Jennings Bryan was anti imperialist, which goes along with Wilson's use of moral diplomacy
What did Wilson's "moral diplomacy" say the U.S. would no longer do?
seek additional territory by conquest
Compare/contrast "big stick" diplomacy, "dollar diplomacy," and "moral diplomacy"
Big stick appears to be the most successful, because both other forms of diplomacy use the military to back them up.
Big Stick: military
Dollar: foreign investments