40 terms

Human Anatomy

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What are the 7 functions of the integument system?
Protection, Prevention of water loss, Temperature regulation, Immune defense, Sensory reception, Excretion & Secretion
Stratum basale
is the deepest layer and is mitotically active. Containing three types of cells
Stratum Spinosum
Second layer where daughter cells from the stratum basale differentiate into non-dividing highly specialized keratinocytes
Stratum Granulosum
3rd layer has 3 -5 layers of keratinocytes. Organelles begin to degrade and cytoplasm fills with concentrated keratin filaments.
Stratum Lucidum
thin translucent region 2 -3 layers thick and present on thick skin such as soles of feet and palms of hands. Cells are devoid of organelles but filled with ELEIDIN, which is tougher and transparent
Stratum Corneum
Most superficial layer. Thickness is few to 30 layers thick depending on area of the body. Comprised only of dead keratinocytes to be sloughed off by abrasion of skin.
When does the epidermis have 5 layers instead of four? What is the name of the extra layer?
In thick skin on the plantar's and palmers, the extra layer in this region is called the "Stratum Lucidum".
In which layer are new cells made?
The Stratum Basale, which is mitotically active.
What are the three cell types in the STRATUM BASALE?
Keratinocytes, Tactile Cells, Melanocytes
Which layer has living keratinocytes and dentrictic cells?
The Stratum Spinosum
In which layer do cells start to die?
The Stratum Granulosum
What three pigments determine the color of your skin?
Melanin. Hemoglobin, Carotene
Which pigment helps protect DNA from UV radiation?
Melanin - protects DNA from UV radiation
2. In which layer is the epidermis is melanin made? By which cell type?
It is made in the STRATUM BASALE by melanocytes
Jaundice
Yellowing of the skin due to elevated levels of bilirubin in the blood because of abnormal liver function.
Albinism
Hair is white, skin is pale, and irises of eyes are pink: due to an inherited recessive gene, which results in melanocytes being incapable of producing any melanin.
What do you monitor to increase your chances of early skin cancer detection?
You monitor your moles to see if they change color, shape or size.
Basal cell carcinoma
originates in the Stratum Basale
Squamous cell carcinoma
originates from the keratinocytes of the Stratum Spinosum.
Malignant Melenoma
Arises from melanocytes and is the MOST DEADLY
What type of connective tissue does the papillary layer of the dermis primarily consist of?
Areolar connective tissue
What is the purpose of the dermal papillae and epidermal ridges?
They interlock with each other, providing an increase in the area of contact between the epidermis and the dermis by connecting the layers
What type of connective tissue dominates in the reticular layer of the dermis
Dense irregular connective tissue.
Do stretch marks originate from damage to the epidermis, dermis or hypodermis?
The dermis
Vasoconstriction
the diameter of the blood vessels narrows so less blood travels to the periphery of the body keeping the body warm.
Vasodilation
the diameter of the blood vessels increases allowing more blood to reach the periphery of the body. Cooling it at the same time.
What types of CT make up the hypodermis
Areolar and Adiose connective tissue.
What is the function of the hypodermis
Pads and protects the body and its parts, and acts as an energy reserve, and provides thermal insulation.
What are the epidermal derivates of the integument system?
Nails, Hair, Sweat and Sebaceous Glands
What makes nails hard?
The Stratum Corneum layer of the epidermis
What is the actively growing part of the nail?
The Nail Matrix
Where does the hair follicle originate? What kind of cell is hair made from?
From the hypodermis and it's made from keratinized cells
What are the components of hair papilla
Connective tissue, Nerves and blood vessels
What does the erector pili muscle do
Responds to emotional states such as fear or anger and exposure to cold temperatures
What are the six functions of hair
Protection, Heat retention, Facial Expression (eyebrows), Sensory reception, Visual identification, Chemical signal dispersal
What are the two types of exocrine glands in the skin?
Sweat glands and sebaceous glands
What are the two types of sweat glands?
Merocrine glands, Apocrine glands
Where are the merocrine glands primarily located? What do they release? What controls the release of their substance? What are their primary functions
Palms of hands and feet, Extra water and electrolytes, The nervous system, Thermoregulation, secretion and protection.
Where do the apocrine glands release their substance? Why do their secretions lead to body odor?
In the axillary and pubic regions, onto hair follicles. They release lipids and proteins, which promotes bacteria growth thus body odor.
Where are sebaceous glands located? What do they release? What is their purpose? At what age do they become active?
In the axillary and pubic regions. Releases sebum and prevents hair and skin from becoming dry or brittle, At puberty