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Drivers Ed, Module 9

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The instrument panel contains the following gauges:
Speedometer, Tachometer, Odometer, Fuel gauge, Oil gauge
Speedometer
which indicates speed in both miles and kilometers per hour.
Tachometer
which indicates the engine rotation in revolutions per minute (RPMs).
Odometer
which indicates the total number of miles your car has been driven since it was manufactured.
Fuel Gauge
which shows the fuel level in your car's fuel tank.
Oil Gauge
which shows oil level.
Warning lights
are provided on your car's instrument panel. They light up in case of a serious problem. There are three kinds of warning lights:

Oil Pressure Warning Light
Temperature Warning Light
Battery Low Warning Light
Temperature Warning Light/Gauge:
This light activates when the engine temperature or the radiator's coolant is too hot. In some vehicles, a needle gauge indicates the temperature rising in the warning zone of HOT.
If this warning light goes on while you are driving, STOP as soon as possible at a safe place and shut the engine off.
NEVER REMOVE THE RADIATOR CAP TO CHECK THE COOLANT LEVEL WHEN THE ENGINE IS HOT. The coolant is at boiling temperature and under pressure. If the cap is released, the hot coolant will release with pressure and can cause severe burns if you are standing too close
Oil Pressure Warning Light
This light goes on when the engine oil is not circulating at the required pressure. Some vehicles have an oil pressure gauge that reads LOW when the engine's oil pressure drops. If you see an oil pressure warning while driving, STOP immediately at a safe place and turn off the engine.
Battery Low Warning Light
When this light goes on or the battery gauge reads LOW, the power needed for your car starter is limited.
Accelerator
is the far-right pedal located on the floor under the steering wheel. This pedal controls the amount of gas being fed to the engine, which determines the speed of the vehicle.
With your heel resting on the ground, use your right foot to push the accelerator.
Do not rev the engine. Push the accelerator gradually while your car speeds up.
Brake Pedal
is located on the floor to the left of the accelerator. When pressed, it applies the brakes, causing the vehicle to slow down and/or stop. You must use your right foot (heel on ground) to press the pedal and cause the brakes to engage. If your vehicle has standard brakes, the pedal will move a little bit before it resists. If you have power brakes, you do not need to apply as much pressure on the pedal to bring the car to a stop.
gearshift
is either a lever protruding from the right side of the steering column or a lever on the floor to the right of the driver. The gearshift changes gears to maintain proper speed. It immobilizes the power train when parked.
lights
igh-beam headlights (bright lights). Objects 450 ft ahead should be visible with use.
Low-beam headlights, which must show objects 150 ft ahead.
Two red taillights mounted on the rear, which must be visible from 1000 ft.
A white light that illuminates the license plate and makes it visible from 50 ft.
Two red stop/brake lights, which should activate when the brake is pressed and be seen from 300 ft in the day.
high beam lights
High-beams are to be used when visibility is low. However, you must not use high-beams in fog, as they only reflect the dampened air and blind other drivers.
The Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles lists the following requirements for lighting on vehicles:
All vehicles must have at least one white light in front that is visible from at least 1,000 ft away.
All vehicles must have two red lights at the rear that are visible from at least 1,000 ft away, or one red light at the rear visible from 1,000 ft and two red reflectors visible from 600 to 1,000 ft.
turning signals
On most cars, the turn signal lever is located to the left of the steering wheel. Shifting the lever up indicates a right turn and shifting it down indicates a left turn. Once the car turns, the signal should turn off automatically, but if it doesn't, turn it off manually as soon as possible.
hazard lights
warn other drivers of an emergency situation you may be encountering. All four turn signal lights turn on when you activate the hazard lights. Consult your owner's manual for the exact location of the hazard light switch in your car.
winshield wipers
the windshield wipers are activated by a lever to the right of the steering wheel. Usually, you can adjust the speed of your wipers to optimize performance for the driving conditions.
Almost always, you can use the windshield wiper lever to dispense windshield wiper fluid, which removes dirt obstructing your view. Using the windshield wiper fluid lever allows you to clean the windshield while driving to immediately improve visibility.
anti lock braking system
simply keeps your base brakes—whether drum or disc—from locking up. In vehicles not equipped with ABS, the driver can manually pump the brakes to prevent wheel lockup. In vehicles equipped with ABS, the driver's foot remains firmly on the brake pedal, allowing the system to automatically pump the brakes.
1. In a car crash, wearing a seat belt __________________.
reduces being through and injuries
3. On most vehicles, the windshield wipers can be activated by a lever located to the _________ of the steering wheel.
right
4. If the temperature warning light/gauge goes on, what should you do?
continue driving to a safe place stop and check
5. With manual transmission, use your right foot for the brake and accelerator and left foot for the clutch.
true
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Check the engine cooling system frequently. The antifreeze/coolant level should be checked periodically to ensure proper levels recommended by your vehicle owner's manual. Improperly maintained levels can result in overheating in warm weather or engine freezing during winter. Always keep an eye on the engine temperature gauge.
Be careful to check your radiator ONLY when the vehicle is cool, not immediately after operation.
Tires
should be frequently inspected for proper inflation pressure, tread depth, uneven wear, and cracks. They should be replaced when tread depth is low or if cracked.
There are several easy ways to check tire tread depth. You can measure tread depth with a tread depth gauge. You can also use a penny to check tire wear. Tire wear bars are also used on new tires as a hands-off visual indication that a tire needs replacement.
How to Check Tire Pressure
1. Remove the tire's valve cap.
2. Place the gauge over the tire's valve stem and press firmly so that no escaping air can be heard. The tire gauge will indicate how much pressure is in the tire. It is in your best interest to purchase your own high-quality pressure gauge. Gas station and convenience store gauges are sometimes damaged and inaccurate.
About
If the battery has removable vent caps, remove the caps on a monthly basis and check the level of electrolyte (a solution of sulfuric acid and water found) inside your battery. This level should rise above the top plates of the battery. If fluid is needed, add distilled water. Be sure to avoid overfilling the cells. Use distilled water, not tap water. Tap water may contain mineral deposits that reduce battery life.
evaporative emissions system
is designed to trap fuel vapors from the fuel tank and fuel lines and store them in the charcoal canister. The purge valve is controlled by the engine management computer and provides engine vacuum to the canister during startup. This draws any stored fuel vapors into the engine where they are burned.
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Does your vehicle still have the original fuel cap?
An incorrect replacement could leak fuel vapors.
Do you habitually squeeze the fuel nozzle when filling up to get as much fuel into the tank as possible?
This may seem like a convenient way to get extra fuel, but it can actually harm the evaporative fuel emissions system by forcing liquid fuel into the charcoal canister.
Periodic lubrication and oil changes matching manufacturer's recommendations extend the life of your vehicle,
Components that require oil/fluid inspection and changes are: engine, transmission, power steering and brakes
The brake fluid level should be checked periodically.
If the level is low, brake fluid should be added to maintain a full level. Your brakes are your lifeline and should always be inspected and maintained by a trained professional.
Of course, the best possible brake maintenance is preventive maintenance. By not using your brakes excessively, you can extend their life and minimize the costs of brake maintenance.
Preventative maintenance
means that money is saved and breakdowns are avoided by having comprehensive inspections regularly completed. Your vehicle should be inspected by a trained professional at least twice a year.
What components should be inspected?
The inspection should cover components with a high probability of failure or excessive wear.
The most common service required for drum brakes is changing the brake shoes. Some drum brakes provide an inspection hole on the back side where you can see how much material is left on the shoe.
When the friction material has been worn away, the wear indicator will contact the disc and make a squealing sound. This squeal means you need new brake pads.
There is also an inspection opening in the caliper (the device brake pads are mounted on) where you can see how much friction material is left on your brake pads.
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During a tune-up, you should have your spark plugs, spark distributor, distributor cap, and air filter changed.
The timing of your vehicle should be checked and adjusted, and your points should be changed (if your vehicle has them).
Depreciation
he amount of value your car loses as it ages, is a significant cost in owning a vehicle. Depreciation is particularly high during the period immediately after buying a new car and for the next few years. After that, the rate of depreciation will plateau and your car's resale value becomes more dependent on its condition, mileage and specifications.
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depreciation, insurance, and registration will always be important. If you drive your car a lot, gas mileage and day-to-day repairs will be significant cost considerations. While it is difficult to estimate the costs of owning and operating a vehicle, you should consider all of these types of costs when making a decision about what type of vehicle to purchase.