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TOK Ethics Vocab
Terms in this set (37)
The view that the truth of certian claims, especially metaphysical and religious, are unknown and perhaps unavoidable
The principal of putting the welfare of others above one self. It is a form of selfessness and in an ethical view one is obliged to act this way. It is the opposite of egoism.
The disbelief or lack of belief in God or gods
An unconditional moral obligation that is binding in all circumstances and is not dependent on a person's inclination or purpose.
Our personal awareness of what is right and wrong.
Measure whether an action is right or wrong on the basis of the result, outcome or consequence of the action
The creation and maintenance of unequal relationships between cultures and the favoring of more powerful ones.
It holds that moral claims have to be assessed in relation to a particular culture.
Deontological or Duty Theories
Measure whether an action is right or wrong by considering the nature of the action itself, the motivation or the intention behind it.
From the Greek word ethikos, meaning 'character', refers to customary ways to behave in society; also refers to the study of morals.
Situation where we are confronted between two right options.
The idea that actions which benefit the doer are ethical
Claims that moral judgements are dependent on our individual wishes, hopes and aspirations and need to be assessed in relation to the person who is making the judgement.
Claims that there are some universal moral truths that are true for all people at all times.
Set of moral principles used to explain our moral institutions and to help us decide, when facing a moral dilema.
The idea that thinking, feeling, and acting should be harmoniously merged, held by virture theorists.
The mutual respect, understanding and interaction between different countries and cultures.
From the latin word moralis. Concerned with the priciples or rules of right conduct, or the distinction between right and wrong.
Rules which apply universally, regardless of circumstamces.
When actions "appear" to be morally good or morally wrong. Could lead to moral confusion.
General rules that allow is to clarify actions as morally good or morally wrong, can help us where there is a conflicting moral intuition.
The belief that moral truths are subjective and based upon one's culture and society.
Situation where we are confronted between right and wrong option.
Reciprocity or Golden Rule
The belief that one should treat others how they hope to be treated.
A person who thinks that there are no universal priciples or absolutes since what we claim to know about right and wrong depends on our culture, country, and place in history.
The claim that human beings are always selfish.
A moral or political contract between an individual and his or her society which addresses the legitimacy of authority of the state over the individual.
An argument which contains a double standard within it.
An experiment carried out only in the imagination. Considers some hypothesis, theory, or principle for the purpose of thinking through its consequences.
To consider what would happen if everyone did an action.
Ethical decisions baised upon the idea that the good over the group outweighs an individual's desire.
Any object or quality desirable as a means or as an end in itself.
A meaningful ordering of alternatives, used by decision theorists to determine the importance of an action.
Identify the rightness or wrongness of a value. It implies an obligation to carry out an act and implicitly involves the terms ought and should.
Veil of Ignorance
A method of determining the morality of a certain issue based upon the following thoght experiments: parties to the original position know nothing about their particular abilities, tastes, and position within the social order of society. When such parties are selecting the principles for distribution of rights, positions, and resources in society they will live, the veil of ignorance prevents them from knowing about who they will be in that society.
Conformity of one's life and conduct to moral and ethical principles; uprightness, rectitude, moral excellence, goodness and righteousness.
Considers a person's character, and what it is to be a good person.
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