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AP Bio --> Structure and Function of Macromolecules
Midterm Review Chapter 5
Terms in this set (23)
List the four major classes of macromolecules.
The four major classes or macromolecules are carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and proteins.
Distinguish between monomers and polymers.
Monomers -> The subunit that serves as the building unit of polymers
Polymers -> A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together.
Draw diagrams to illustrate condensations and hydrolysis reactions.
Condensation reaction -> A reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other though the loss of a small molecule, usually water; also called dehydration reaction.
Hydrolysis -> A chemical process that lyses, or splits, molecules by the addition of water; an essential process in digestion.
Distinguish among monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides.
Monosaccharides -> The simplest carbohydrate, active alone or serving as a monomer for disaccharides and polysaccharides. Also known as simple sugars, the molecular formulas or monosaccharides are generally some multiple of CH2O.
Disaccharides -> A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.
Polysaccharides -> A plymer of of up to over a thousand monosaccharides, formed by dehydration synthesis reactions.
Describe the formation of a glycosidic linkage.
The bond that forms between two monosaccharides when larger carbohydrates (disaccharides and polysaccharides) are synthesized. It involves the reaction of two -C-OH groups, producing water, and a -C-O-C- bond. This -C-O-C- bond is called the glycosidic link. The formation of the glycosidic link is known as a condensation reaction, because water is formed.
Distinguish between the glycosidic linkages found in starch and cellulose. Explain why the difference is biologically important.
There are actually tow slightly different ring structures of glucose. When glucose forms a ring, the hydroxyl group attached to the number 1 carbon is locked into one of the two alternative positions: either above or below the plane of the ring (α and β) Starch is a storage polysaccharide and cellulose is a structural polysaccharide.
Describe the role of symbiosis in cellulose digestion.
Herbivores eat plants. They have evolved a relationship mechanism with some bacteria that can degrade cellulose. These bacteria live in their intestines. The animal eat plant, the bacteria degrade the cellulose therefore the animal is nourished. Humans do not have these bacteria and are not able to digest chitin.
Describe the building-block molecules, structure and biological importance of fats, phospholipids and steroids.
Fats -> Are constructed of a glycerol + 3 fatty acids. (saturated fats = bad)
Phospholipids -> Make up cell membranes; glycerol + 2 fatty acids
Steroid -> Hormones/cholesterol; four fused rings
Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated fats.
Saturated fats -> No double bonds, straight chains of hydrogen and carbon, solid at room temperature.
Unsaturated -> Has one or more double bonds formed by removal of hydrogen atoms that cause kinks in the chain causing it to be liquid at room temperature.
Name the principal energy storage molecules of plants and animals.
Plants -> All energy stored by starch.
Animals -> Energy stored in glycogen (made in the liver.)
Distinguish between a protein and a polypeptide.
Protein -> A
Explain how a peptide bond forms between two amino acids.
A dehydration reaction covalently bonds amino group of one amino acid with carboxyl group of another amino acid
List and describe the four major components of an amino acid. Explain how amino acids may be grouped according to the physical and chemical properties of the R group.
R Group -> determines polarity
Explain what determines protein conformation and why it is important.
Polypeptide has to have best environment (temp, pH) because if not in good conditions it unravels and becomes denatured.
Explain how the primary structure of a protein is determined.
Primary structure -> DNA tells the amino acid order. Bonded with peptide bonds.
Name two types of secondary protein structure. Explain the role of hydrogen bonds in maintaining secondary structure. Explain how weak interactions and disulfide bridges contribute to tertiary protein structure.
Secondary -> Alpha Helix and Beta Pleated Sheet
They are made by hydrogen bonds.
Tertiary structure has disulfide bridges, covalent bond, ionic bonding hydrogen bonds, Van der Waals interactions. All of these bonds are needed to keep structure.
List the four conditions under which proteins may be denatured.
Heat, acid, salt and pH.
List the major components of a nucleotide, and describe how these monomers are linked to form a nucleic acid.
Nitrogen base, pentose sugar, phosphate group
Sugars and phosphates -> ladder upright; covalent bonds
bases -> rungs of the ladder (purine bonds with a pyrimidine); hydrogen bonds (weakest)
Distinguish between a purine and pyrimidine.
Pyrimidine -> C, T, U
Purine -> A, G
Distinguish between a nucleotide and a nucleoside.
Nucleotide -> Base + sugar + phosphate
Nucleoside -> Base + sugar
Distinguish between ribose and deoxyribose.
RNA -> Ribonucleic acid
DNA -> Deoxyribonucleic acid
Distinguish between 5-prime and 3-prime end of a nucleotide.
5' -> Front
3' -> Back
Example -> 5' ATTCGA 3' , complementary strand -> 3' TAAGCT 5'
Briefly describe the three dimensional structure of DNA.
DNA is three dimensional because it consists of two strands wrapped around each other.
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