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supports the head; allows a rocking motion in conjunction with the occipital condyles


dens here provides a pivot for rotation of the first cervical vertebra (C1)

cervical vertebra-typical

vertebral type containing foramina in the transverse processes, through which the vertebral arteries ascend to reach the brain


"tail bone"; vestigial fuses vertebrae

lumbar vertebra

massive vertebrae; weight-sustaining


composite bone; articulates with the hip bone laterally

thoracic vertebra

transverse processes faceted for articulation with ribs; spinous process pointing sharply downward

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