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Sudden onset of hyperactivity of the bronchioles with bronchospasm. Inflammation and swelling severely narrow the lumens. Aka reactive airway disease because it is a hypersensitive reaction to a triggering agent


contraction of the smooth muscle


Acute or chronic inflammation or infection of the bronchi.

bronchiectasis (BRONG-kee-EK-tah-sis)

Chronic, permanent enlargement and loss of elasticity of the bronchi and bronchioles.


Irregular crackling or bubbling sounds during inspiration


Humming, whistling, or shoring sounds during inspiration or expiration


High pitched, harsh, crowing sound due to obstruction in the trachea or larynx


High pitched whistling or squeaking sounds during inspiration or expiration

atelectasis (AT-eh-LEK-tah-sis)

Incomplete expansion of collapse of part or all of a lung due to mucus, tumor, trauma, or a foreign body that blocks the bronchus. Aka collapsed lung

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema caused by chronic exposure to pollution or smoking

cystic fibrosis

Inherited eventually fatal disease caused by recessive gene. Affects all exocrine cells (those that secrete mucus, digestive enzymes, and sweat), but respiratory system is particularly affected.


Acute viral infection of the upper and lower respiratory tracts.


Chronic, irreversibly damaged alveoli that become large air spaces that trap air in the lungs

empyema (EM-py-EE-mah)

Localized collection of pus in the thoracic cavity from in infection in the lungs

lung cancer

Cancerous tumor of the lungs


Cancerous tumor


Constant exposure to inhaled coal dust causes this condition. Aka coal miner's lung or black lung


Constant exposure to inhaled asbestos causes this condition

pneumoconiosis (NOO-moh-KOH-nee-OH-sis)

General word for any occupational lung disease caused by chronically inhaling some type of dust or particle


Inflammation or infection of some or all of the lobes of the lungs and bronchi

aspiration pneumonia

Caused by foreign matter such as vomit that is inhaled into the lungs

bacterial pneumonia

Pneumonia caused by a bacterium

broncho- pneumonia

Pneumonia that affects the bronchi, bronchioles, and the adjacent lung tissue and alveoli

double pneumonia

Involves both lungs

lobar pneumonia

Affects one part or all of a lobe of a lung

viral pneumonia

Pneumonia caused by a virus

walking pneumonia

Mild form of pneumonia caused by the bacterium Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

pulmonary edema

Fluid in the alveoli due to failure of the left side of the heart to adequately pump blood. There is backup blood in the pulmonary circulation


Blockage of an artery by an embolus


blood clot or fat globule

severe acute respiratory syndrome

Acute viral respiratory illness that can be fatal.


Lung infection caused by bacterium and spread by airborne droplets expelled by coughing


presence of blood in the thoracic cavity, usually from trauma


Large volume of air that forms in the pleural space and progressively separates the two pleural membranes.


inflammation of the pleura as a result of pneumonia or other infection, trauma, or tumor. Aka pleuritis


Brief or prolonged absence of spontaneous respirations


Abnormally slow rate of breathing


Difficult, labored, or painful respiration due to lung disease. Aka shortness of breath


Lung disease that causes the patient to assume an upright or semi-upright position in order to breathe and sleep comfortably. Dyspnea and congestion in the lungs occur when laying down

tachypnea (TAK-ip-NEE-ah)

Abnormally rabid rate of breathing caused by lung disease


Complete lack of oxygen in the arterial blood and body tissues


Bluish-gray discoloration of the skin from abnormally low levels of oxygen and abnormally high levels of carbon dioxide in the tissues


Abnormally high level of carbon dioxide in the arterial blood


Abnormally low level of oxygen in the arterial blood


Abnormally low level of oxygen at the cellular level


Patient who has abnormally low levels of oxygen at the cellular level are said to be this.

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