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46 terms

Sx, Signs & Diseases: Ch 4

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athsma
Sudden onset of hyperactivity of the bronchioles with bronchospasm. Inflammation and swelling severely narrow the lumens. Aka reactive airway disease because it is a hypersensitive reaction to a triggering agent
bronchospasm
contraction of the smooth muscle
bronchitis
Acute or chronic inflammation or infection of the bronchi.
bronchiectasis (BRONG-kee-EK-tah-sis)
Chronic, permanent enlargement and loss of elasticity of the bronchi and bronchioles.
rales
Irregular crackling or bubbling sounds during inspiration
rhonchi
Humming, whistling, or shoring sounds during inspiration or expiration
stridor
High pitched, harsh, crowing sound due to obstruction in the trachea or larynx
wheezes
High pitched whistling or squeaking sounds during inspiration or expiration
atelectasis (AT-eh-LEK-tah-sis)
Incomplete expansion of collapse of part or all of a lung due to mucus, tumor, trauma, or a foreign body that blocks the bronchus. Aka collapsed lung
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
Combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema caused by chronic exposure to pollution or smoking
cystic fibrosis
Inherited eventually fatal disease caused by recessive gene. Affects all exocrine cells (those that secrete mucus, digestive enzymes, and sweat), but respiratory system is particularly affected.
influenza
Acute viral infection of the upper and lower respiratory tracts.
emphysema
Chronic, irreversibly damaged alveoli that become large air spaces that trap air in the lungs
empyema (EM-py-EE-mah)
Localized collection of pus in the thoracic cavity from in infection in the lungs
lung cancer
Cancerous tumor of the lungs
carcinoma
Cancerous tumor
anthracosis
Constant exposure to inhaled coal dust causes this condition. Aka coal miner's lung or black lung
asbestosis
Constant exposure to inhaled asbestos causes this condition
pneumoconiosis (NOO-moh-KOH-nee-OH-sis)
General word for any occupational lung disease caused by chronically inhaling some type of dust or particle
pneumonia
Inflammation or infection of some or all of the lobes of the lungs and bronchi
aspiration pneumonia
Caused by foreign matter such as vomit that is inhaled into the lungs
bacterial pneumonia
Pneumonia caused by a bacterium
broncho- pneumonia
Pneumonia that affects the bronchi, bronchioles, and the adjacent lung tissue and alveoli
double pneumonia
Involves both lungs
lobar pneumonia
Affects one part or all of a lobe of a lung
viral pneumonia
Pneumonia caused by a virus
walking pneumonia
Mild form of pneumonia caused by the bacterium Mycoplasma pneumoniae.
pulmonary edema
Fluid in the alveoli due to failure of the left side of the heart to adequately pump blood. There is backup blood in the pulmonary circulation
embolism
Blockage of an artery by an embolus
embolus
blood clot or fat globule
severe acute respiratory syndrome
Acute viral respiratory illness that can be fatal.
tuberculosis
Lung infection caused by bacterium and spread by airborne droplets expelled by coughing
hemothorax
presence of blood in the thoracic cavity, usually from trauma
pneumothorax
Large volume of air that forms in the pleural space and progressively separates the two pleural membranes.
pleurisy
inflammation of the pleura as a result of pneumonia or other infection, trauma, or tumor. Aka pleuritis
apnea
Brief or prolonged absence of spontaneous respirations
bradypnea
Abnormally slow rate of breathing
dyspnea
Difficult, labored, or painful respiration due to lung disease. Aka shortness of breath
orthopnea
Lung disease that causes the patient to assume an upright or semi-upright position in order to breathe and sleep comfortably. Dyspnea and congestion in the lungs occur when laying down
tachypnea (TAK-ip-NEE-ah)
Abnormally rabid rate of breathing caused by lung disease
anoxia
Complete lack of oxygen in the arterial blood and body tissues
cyanosis
Bluish-gray discoloration of the skin from abnormally low levels of oxygen and abnormally high levels of carbon dioxide in the tissues
hypercapnia
Abnormally high level of carbon dioxide in the arterial blood
hypoxemia
Abnormally low level of oxygen in the arterial blood
hypoxia
Abnormally low level of oxygen at the cellular level
hypoxic
Patient who has abnormally low levels of oxygen at the cellular level are said to be this.