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History: Chapter 8 Test Study Guide
Terms in this set (74)
Warren Harding appointed several distinguished people to his cabinet, such as ___________ as secretary of state.
Charles Evans Hughes
Harding gave appointments to ___________ and __________from Ohio, which led to corruption and numerous scandals.
friends; political allies
The most famous scandal, the __________ Scandal, concerned bribes for leasing Navy oil reserves in Wyoming and California.
When Harding died, __________ became president.
The new president (Calvin Coolidge) believed prosperity depended on ____________.
The secretary of treasury, Andrew Mellon, had three major goals under Harding and successive presidents: ___________, ___________, and __________.
to balance the budget, reduce government debt, and to reduce taxes
Mellons idea that lower tax rates grow the economy and result in the government collecting more taxes is known as __________.
Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover encouraged economic growth through his idea of ____________.
He (Herbert Hoover) believed it (cooperative individualism) would _____________ and promote __________.
reduce costs; economic efficiency
By the end of World War I, the dominate economic power in the world was the ___________.
It (the United States) tried to promote peace by using __________ and ___________ agreements.
economic power; arms control
Through the __________, American banks lent money to Germany to help it pay its war reparations.
The Washington conference proposed a 10-year halt on ___________.
construction of new warships
A further step to end all wars, _____________ called for nations to abandon war and settle disputes peacefully.
Kellogg Briand Pact
What steps did the U.S. government take to return the nation to "normalcy" after the war?
Under Harding, there were many problems so Coolidge tried to avoid conflicts such as loaning money to Germany to that they could pay back Britain and France so that Britain and France could pay back the U.S. and he created the Kellogg-Briand Pact that called for nations to abandon all war.
What method of mass production increased the supply and reduced the cost of the automobile?
The assembly line.
How did the car revolutionize U.S. society?
Cars helped rural families become less isolated, and they allowed people to live farther from work.
What types of consumer goods came on the market?
To make life easier, the types of goods that came on the market were: household cleaning products, cosmetics, toiletries, appliances, frozen food.
Who completed a transatlantic solo flight in 1927?
How did the radio affect people's lives?
Radios broadcasted news, advertisements, and entertainment all across the nation.
What was the installment plan?
Instead of making a large purchase all at once, you could now pay in small monthly payments.
How did advertisers convince people to buy products?
They linked their products and associated them with the progress of the modern era, convenience, leisure, style, and preyed on people's anxieties.
How did companies change during the managerial revolution?
They split into divisions with different functions within corporations each run by a different manager.
What groups of Americans did not share in the economic boom and why?
- They were replaced in work by returning soldiers.
- They were forced to move into isolated reservations.
Farmers and Factory Workers
- They received lower wages.
What caused the "quiet depression" in agriculture during the 1920s?
The government urged farmers to produce more which caused an overproduction that they couldn't fix due to the fact that the couldn't sell it overseas like they wanted to.
Why did the economy of the 1920s result in quickly expanding prosperity for many Americans, but continued poverty for others?
They 1920s was only an era of prosperity for industries and consumers who could afford goods. Farmers, African Americans, and Native Americans did not participate in this because they were replaced in work by returning soldiers, forced to move into isolated reservations, or just received lower wages.
Many Americans blamed ___________ for the recession and taking jobs from returning soilders.
The trail of ___________ focused on the fact that the accused men were anarchist and foreigners.
Sacco and Vanzetti
In the 1920s, the ___________ led a movement to restrict immigration.
KKK (Klu Klux Klan)
Two laws, the ___________ and the _____________restricted immigration permanetly by establishing quotas.
Emergency Quota Act; National Origins Act
Immigrants from _________ were exempt from quotas and found work on large farms in the ___________>
In the 1920s, many women sought to break free from __________.
Many women attended __________, where they were encouraged to __________.
college; pursue careers
A religious movement called __________ did not embrace the new morality.
It (fundamentalism) rejected the theory of __________ and embraced creationalism.
The ban on the sale and consumption of alcohol was called the __________. To this effect the __________ Amendment was passed but then later repealed.
The illegal production and distrubition of alchol was called ____________.
How did fundamentalism and nativism affect society in the 1920s?
The modern culture encouraged more freedom for young people and morality started changing. Fundamentalists believed consumerism and women reversing roles were declining morals. Nativism inspired groups like the KKK which tried to restrict immigration.
The modernists of the American art movement attempted to express the ___________.
individual modern experience
Examples of this can be seen in the landscapes and flowers painted by __________ and the cubism paintings of __________.
Georgia O'Keeffe; Charles Sheeler
In the 1920s writers and poets wrote about various subjects and used a variety of styles to express their thoughts. American playwright __________ wrote plays that offered a modern view of life while novelist ___________ wrote of his disillusionment with WWI.
Eugene O'Neil; Ernest Hemmingway
Many Americans had more spending money and leisure time because of the ___________ of the 1920s
new technology and prosperity
__________ was the first "talking" motion picture.
The Jazz Singer
One of the most popular composers of the decade was __________, who wrote "Puttin' on the Ritz"
Amos 'n' Andy was a popular __________ that portrayed the lives of two African American fictional characters.
One of the effects of mass media was that it helped to ___________ the nation.
Because of radio and motion pictures, __________ increased popularity. The home-run hitter ____________ became a national hero. Sports fans idolized boxer ____________.
sports; Babe Ruth; Jack Dempsy
How did economic prosperity in the 1920s change popular culture?
Artists and writers pursued their own styles. Americans had more time from leisure and flocked to the movies when sound was introduced. Radio broadcasted entertainment, sports, and news. The radio made athletes more well known and famous as the broadcasted them as national heroes, for example, Babe Ruth.
What was the Great Migration?
This brought many African Americans from the rural south to the north for more industrialized job oppertunities.
What was the era of emerging African American artists called?
Who was the first important writer of the Harlem Renaissance?
Claude McKay (He wrote Harlem Shadows)
Who were great jazz musicians of this period?
He introduced a style of jazz influenced by ragtime
Edward "Duke" Ellington-
He started at the cotton club
She was known as the empress of the blues
What was the 1st musical written, produced, and performed by African Americans?
What impact did African Americans have in elections?
They became a largely influential voting block that could sway votes.
How did the NAACP (National Association for Advancement of Colored People) affect national politics?
The protested againts lynching and they organized a campaign to defeat the conformation of a racist judge to the supreme court.
Who was Zora Hurston?
She was an author who's works featured African Ameican women as main characters.
Who was the 1st African American representative to Congress from a Northern state?
Oscar de Priest
Who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), which promoted black pride and unity?
How did the cultural identity of African Americans change in the 1920s?
They began to work more and go to college. African American artists, writers, and musicians of the Harlem Renaissance became more popular, instilled respect for black artists and were very innovative. They began to fight for their rights. African American political power increased, especially in the north. Organizations like NAACP fought against segregation and discrimination.
an economic theory that lower tax rates will boost the economy as businesses and individuals invest their money, thereby creating higher tax revenue
President Hoover's policy of encouraging manufacturers and distributors to form their own organizations and volunteer information to the federal government in an effort to stimulate the economy
a national policy of avoiding involvement in world affairs
the production of large quantities of goods using machinery and often an assembly line
a production system with machines and workers arranged so that each person performs an assigned task again and again as the item passes before him or her
automobile built by the Ford Motor Company from 1908 until 1927
hostility toward immigrants by native-born people
a person who believes there should be no government
the scientific theory that humans and other forms of life have evolved over time
the belief that God created the world and everything in it, usually in the way described in the Bible
a place where alcoholic beverages are sold illegally
unconventional; not bound by the rules of society
a medium of communication (such as television and radio) intended to reach a wide audience
American style of music that developed from ragtime and blues and that uses syncopated rhythms and improvisation
style of music evolving from African American spirituals and noted for its melancholy sound
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