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History of Human Anatomy Definition of Anatomy Structural Organization of the Body Precise Language of Anatomy


The "Father of Medicine" (400 B.C.)


A Greek scientist who was the first to publicly dissect and compare human and animal bodies (in 300 B.C.)


The "Father of Anatomy"

Galen of Pergamum

The "Prince of Physician"; he stressed the importance of experimentation in medicine (130-200 A.D.)


who wrote "On the movement of the chest and of the lung, On anatomical procedure, and On the uses of the parts of the body of man

mid 1200s

first European medical school in Italy at Salerno

Leonardo Da Vinci

One of the greatest anatomist and biological investigators of all time

Andreas Vesalius

who started a movement of "refined observations"

Andreas Vesalius

The "Reformer of Anatomy" promoted the idea of "living anatomy" (mid 1500s)

Andreas Vesalius

wrote De Humani Corporis Fabrica, the first anatomically accurate medical textbook

William Harvey

who published An Anatomical Study of the Motion of the Heart and of Blood in Animals in 1628

preserved specimen

a new art form for anatomy that appeared in the late 1600s


during this time cross sections started being taken from frozen specimens


cryotechnology (nature of frozen specimens) improved during this time


The Visible Human Project began (cross section of frozen bodies were photographed digitally)

Von Hagens

invented plastination


a unique technology that preserves specimens using reactive polymers


the study of structure


derived from Greek and means "to cut apart"


the scientific discipline that studies the function of body structures

microscopic and gross

anatomy can be divided into these two catergories

microscopic anatomy

examines structures that cannot be observed by the unaided eye


cellular anatomy; the study of single body calls and their internal structures


the study of tissues

macroscopic anatomy

another term for gross anatomy

gross anatomy

investigates the structure and relationships of large body parts that are visible to the unaided eye

comparative anatomy

examines the similarities and differences in the anatomy of species

developmental anatomy

investigates the changes in structure within an individual from conception through maturity


is concerned specifically with developmental changes occurring prior to birth

regional anatomy

examines all the structures in a particular region of the body as on complete unit

surface anatomy

examines both superficial anatomic markings and internal body structures as they relate to the skin covering them

systemic anatomy

studies the gross anatomy of each system in the body

pathologic anatomy

examines all anatomic changes resulting from disease

radiographic anatomy

studies the relationship among internal structures that may be visualized by specific scanning procedures.

surgical anatomy

investigates that anatomic landmarks use before and after surgery

chemical level

the simplest level of organization within the body

atoms and molecules

the chemical level of the body is composed of _______ and ______.


the smalles units of matter


two or more atoms combine to form a ______


protein, a water molecule, or a vitamin are examples of this


the basic units of structure and function in organisims

cellular level

specialized structural and functional units called organelles permit all living cells to share certain common functions


specialized structural and functional units the permit all living cells to share certain common functions


cells are _______ to perform certain functions

organization of the body

Chemical level, cellular level, tissue level, organ level, organ system level, organismal level

tissues level

groups of similar cells with a common function form this stage of organization in the human body

epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous

the 4 types of tissue

epithelial tissue

covers exposed surfaces and lines body cavities

connective tissue

protects, supports and interconnects body parts and organs

muscle tissue

produces movement

nervous tissues

conducts impulses for internal communication

organ level

the level of organization where different tissue types combine to form an organ


contain two or more tissue types that work together to perform specific, complex functions

organ system level

consists of related organs that work together to coordinate activities and achieve a common function

organismal level

the highest level of structural organization in the body

organization, metabolism, growth and development, responsiveness, adaptation, regulation, and reproduction

what are the 7 characteristics of life

structure and order

all organisms exhibit a complex ________ and ______


all organisms carry out various chemical reactions, collectively termed ________

sense and respond

all organisms ______ and ____ to changes in their internal or external environment


when an organism alters an anatomic structure, physiological process, or behavioral trait to increase its expected long-term reproductive success


consistent internal environment


how many organ systems are in the human body

organ systems

Skeletal, Muscular, Integumentary,Endocrine, Nervous, Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Lymphatic, Digestive, Reproductive, Urinary

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