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Ch 1 A First Look at Anatomy

History of Human Anatomy Definition of Anatomy Structural Organization of the Body Precise Language of Anatomy
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Hippocrates
The "Father of Medicine" (400 B.C.)
Herophilus
A Greek scientist who was the first to publicly dissect and compare human and animal bodies (in 300 B.C.)
Herophilus
The "Father of Anatomy"
Galen of Pergamum
The "Prince of Physician"; he stressed the importance of experimentation in medicine (130-200 A.D.)
Galen
who wrote "On the movement of the chest and of the lung, On anatomical procedure, and On the uses of the parts of the body of man
mid 1200s
first European medical school in Italy at Salerno
Leonardo Da Vinci
One of the greatest anatomist and biological investigators of all time
Andreas Vesalius
who started a movement of "refined observations"
Andreas Vesalius
The "Reformer of Anatomy" promoted the idea of "living anatomy" (mid 1500s)
Andreas Vesalius
wrote De Humani Corporis Fabrica, the first anatomically accurate medical textbook
William Harvey
who published An Anatomical Study of the Motion of the Heart and of Blood in Animals in 1628
preserved specimen
a new art form for anatomy that appeared in the late 1600s
1800s
during this time cross sections started being taken from frozen specimens
1900s
cryotechnology (nature of frozen specimens) improved during this time
1980s
The Visible Human Project began (cross section of frozen bodies were photographed digitally)
Von Hagens
invented plastination
plastination
a unique technology that preserves specimens using reactive polymers
anatomy
the study of structure
anatomy
derived from Greek and means "to cut apart"
physiology
the scientific discipline that studies the function of body structures
microscopic and gross
anatomy can be divided into these two catergories
microscopic anatomy
examines structures that cannot be observed by the unaided eye
cytology
cellular anatomy; the study of single body calls and their internal structures
histology
the study of tissues
macroscopic anatomy
another term for gross anatomy
gross anatomy
investigates the structure and relationships of large body parts that are visible to the unaided eye
comparative anatomy
examines the similarities and differences in the anatomy of species
developmental anatomy
investigates the changes in structure within an individual from conception through maturity
embryology
is concerned specifically with developmental changes occurring prior to birth
regional anatomy
examines all the structures in a particular region of the body as on complete unit
surface anatomy
examines both superficial anatomic markings and internal body structures as they relate to the skin covering them
systemic anatomy
studies the gross anatomy of each system in the body
pathologic anatomy
examines all anatomic changes resulting from disease
radiographic anatomy
studies the relationship among internal structures that may be visualized by specific scanning procedures.
surgical anatomy
investigates that anatomic landmarks use before and after surgery
chemical level
the simplest level of organization within the body
atoms and molecules
the chemical level of the body is composed of _______ and ______.
atoms
the smalles units of matter
molecule
two or more atoms combine to form a ______
molecule
protein, a water molecule, or a vitamin are examples of this
cells
the basic units of structure and function in organisims
cellular level
specialized structural and functional units called organelles permit all living cells to share certain common functions
organelles
specialized structural and functional units the permit all living cells to share certain common functions
specialized
cells are _______ to perform certain functions
organization of the body
Chemical level, cellular level, tissue level, organ level, organ system level, organismal level
tissues level
groups of similar cells with a common function form this stage of organization in the human body
epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous
the 4 types of tissue
epithelial tissue
covers exposed surfaces and lines body cavities
connective tissue
protects, supports and interconnects body parts and organs
muscle tissue
produces movement
nervous tissues
conducts impulses for internal communication
organ level
the level of organization where different tissue types combine to form an organ
Organs
contain two or more tissue types that work together to perform specific, complex functions
organ system level
consists of related organs that work together to coordinate activities and achieve a common function
organismal level
the highest level of structural organization in the body
organization, metabolism, growth and development, responsiveness, adaptation, regulation, and reproduction
what are the 7 characteristics of life
structure and order
all organisms exhibit a complex ________ and ______
metabolism
all organisms carry out various chemical reactions, collectively termed ________
sense and respond
all organisms ______ and ____ to changes in their internal or external environment
adaptation
when an organism alters an anatomic structure, physiological process, or behavioral trait to increase its expected long-term reproductive success
homeostasis
consistent internal environment
11
how many organ systems are in the human body
organ systems
Skeletal, Muscular, Integumentary,Endocrine, Nervous, Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Lymphatic, Digestive, Reproductive, Urinary