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Isms and Revolution
Terms in this set (58)
Congress of Vienna
Where 4 major powers (Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia) met to arrange final peace settlement. Leader was Austrian foreign minister, Metternich.
Principle of legitimacy
Metternich claimed he was guided by this at Vienna. He felt legitimate monarchs must be restored because they would persevere traditional institutions. An example is when France and Spain restored the Bourbons.
Prince Klemens von Metternich: how suppressed nationalist and liberal revolutions?
Russian tsar, at first seemed open to reform but after defeat of Napoleon changed government to strict censorship.
French diplomat, worked for Napoleon but soon undermined his authority and worked behind the scenes and was sneaky in working around the Congress of Vienna.
Balance of Power
Created so that no one country could dominate Europe. Fear that France would upset peace led conferees to establish barriers around to avoid French expansion.
First form of modern communist, wrote Reflections on the Revolution in France in reaction to french revolution. Thought the state was just a partnership with society and could be dissolved by the parties (in the square action). No one generation has the right to partnership, only pass it on to the next.
The Concert of Europe
Major powers decided to meet periodically to discuss common interests. First meeting they decided to withdraw occupation from France and make it a quintuple alliance with France. Other meetings didn't go so well.
Principle of intervention
Great powers of Europe had right to send in armies into countries where there were revolutions. Helped restore many monarchs (Ferdinand I, Ferdinand VII) Britain disagreed with principal, eventually broke down the Concert.
what countries, major players, how/why attempting to destroy the status quo? How Conservatives reestablish control?
1820 outbreak of revolution in Spain and Italy. Spain against Ferdinand VII (Bourbon king). Italy against Bourbon Ferdinand I. Conservatives reestablished control by the principle of intervention and sent troops to those countries.
Principle of intervention turned out to be a double sided sword. Supported revolt of greeks agains ottomans. After treaty of Adrianople, Russia got protectorate over the two provinces and made Greece an independent kingdom.
Peterloo Massacre in Britain
In Britain, only wealthy got representation and voting privileges. 2 political factions, Tories (dominated gov till 1830, were fine with political and electoral system), and Whigs (received support from industrial middle class). Gov failing and needed money, Corn Law made which put big tariffs on foreign grain, made bread price rise and conditions for working classes worse. Protest occurred, calvary attacked and killed 11, gov restricted large public meetings and pamphlets to be distributed.
Accepted Napoleons civil code of principle of equality before law, bicameral two house legislature was established, and other things created/preserved. Liberals (ultraroyalists) opposed his moderation. They wanted monarchial system dominated by privileged landed aristocracy.
Brother of Louis XVIII, pursued a religious policy that encouraged the catholic church to reestablish control over educational system. Public outrage, King accepted principle of ministerial responsibility (ministers of the king were responsible to the legislature), king violated it, deputies protested, led to him dissolving legislature and call for new elections, France on brink of another revolution.
Happened when a student killed a playwright. These closed the Burschenschaften (student societies that fostered the goal of a free, united Germany), provided for a censorship of the press, and placed universities under strict control.
Decembrist Revolt in Russia
Alexander 1 (still divine right monarch) was cool with the enlightenment and (with help of Michael Speransky) relaxed senatorship, freed political prisoners, and reformed educational system. He refused to help the serfs. After defeat of Napoleon, he made his gov strictly censored again. Secret societies started forming. Alexander died, brother Nicholas became ruler. During confusion, Northern Union rebelled against accession of Nicholas, but was soon crushed by Nicholas. As a result (to avoid further rebellion) he strengthened bureaucracy and secret police.
Liberalism (economic and political)
Economic: (classical) concept of laissez-faire (belief that state should not interrupt free play of natural economic forces, especially supply and demand). Gov should not restrain economic liberty of individual and should restrict itself to 3 functions, 1. Defense of country 2. Police protection of individuals 3. construction and maintenance of public works to expensive for individuals to fund
Political: Common set of beliefs, chief was protection of civil liberties or basic rights of all the people (equality before law; freedom of assembly, speech and press; and freedom of arbitrary arrest).Believed in constitutional monarchy with limits on powers of gov
Case against gov interfering in economic matters was enhanced by him, Wrote Essay on the principles of Population, which talks about how populations rose at a rate that couldn't be matched by a slower rate of food increase. Final result is overpopulation and starvation.
Mathus's ideas developed by him, wrote Principles of Political Economy, argued that more people means more workers, which means lower wages. Result is misery and starvation.
John Stuart Mill
Strong advocate of liberalism in 19th century, wrote On Liberty, classic statement on liberty of individual. Argued for absolute freedom of opinion and sentiment on all subjects. Also enthusiastic supporter of women's rights.
Focus of individuals primary political loyalty. Each nationality should have its own gov. Threatened to upset existing political power internationally and nationally (during concert of Europe). Nationalism and liberalism had many similar characteristics.
Socialism vs. utopian socialism
Socialism rose from idea of change during terrible living conditions of industrial revolution. Term associated with analysis on human society, but early socials was largely product of political intellectuals who wanted to introduce equality into social conditions and believed cooperation was more important than competition.
Utopian socialists came from later Marxists, against private property and competitive spirit of early industrialists and capitalism. By redoing all these organizations they thought a better environment for humanity could be achieved.
Early socialist, proposed creation of small model communities called phalanstery (work and live together for mutual benefit)
British cotton manufacturer, also believed humans would reveal true good nature if they lived in cooperative environment. He had success in transforming a sad factory town into a flourishing community. The second time he tried it didn't work, but worked for women's rights later on.
Wrote "The Organization of Work" and said that social problems could be solved by government assistance. Said that the state should finance these workshops to create goods, but the workers would own and operate them.
Preached the need for the liberation of women. She wanted absolute equality, but was ignored mostly.
Charles X (France) issued the July Ordinances that had censorship on press, dissolved the legislative assembly, and reduced the electorate. This caused immediate rebellion (July Revolution), new king.
Soon called bourgeois monarch because political support for rule came from upper middle class. Lesser social class disappointed because they were excluded. Two parties created, The Party of Movement (liked ministerial responsibility) and the Party of Resistance (thought France was in its perfect form of gov.)
Revolutions of 1830
Congress of Vienna added the Austrian Netherlands (Belgium) to the Dutch Republic. Difference of religions (protestant Dutch and catholic Belgium) lead Belgians to rise up against Dutch and got their independence. Italy and Poland also had some revolution but Metternich sent troops to Italy. Russians crushed revolt in Poland.
Reform Act of 1832
Gave explicit recognition to the changes wrought in British life by the Industrial Revolution. Benefitted upper middle class.
The Poor Law of 1834 said that giving aid to the poor encouraged laziness, therefore they made it so that poor people would choose to work. Repealed the Corn Laws.
Revolutions of 1848- challenges to conservatism and the breakdown of the Concert of Europe (France, German states, Austria, Italian States)
France: Agricultural depression was hard for French lower classes, Louis-Philippe abdicated, and a provisional government was established. New constitution established the Second Republic with a one house legislature
Germanic States: Cries for change lead rulers to promise constitutions, free press, etc. The attempt at change failed.
Austrian Empire: Hungarian liberals willing to keep Habsburg monarch but wanted their own legislature, and got it. Hungarian revolution was crushed in 1849, revolutions in Austria failed.
Italian States: Goal was to create a united Italian Republic. Lots of Italian states rose to revolt in 1848, ruler after ruler granted constitution, most rulers were able to get power back, except Piedmont.
Britain refused to use principle of intervention
New Police Forces
Well trained law enforcement officers who were to preserve property and lives, etc.
French Police: Known as serjents, lightly armed.
British Bobbies: Relied on unpaid constables, often incapable of keeping order, so they hired "bobbies" to prevent crime.
Rise in arrests due to better police, wanted to rehabilitate rather that punish, solitary confinement less practical because of rise in arrests, sent people to look at how american prisons worked.
Policies of Napoleon III
Believed in using resources of government to stimulate national economy, made a more modern Paris. Liberalized his regime by reaching out to the working class etc.
The Crimean War and the end of the Concert of Europe
Ottoman Empire in period of decline, European powers interested. War between Russia and the Ottoman Empire, later Great Britain and France declared war on Russia. French feared the growth of Russian Influence. Austria remained neutral. Treaty of Paris said that Russia had to give up some territory. Nightingale made nursing a profession. Broke up concert of Europe because Austria and Russia were enemies, great Britain pulled back.
Unification of Italy
Austria still dominant power on the Italian peninsula, Piedmont leading role in national unity.
Camillo di Cavour
Leader of Italy, favored constitutional government, encouraged building new roads, canals, etc and investment in new industries. Allied with French. Fought, French made peace with Austria unexpectedly, then northern Italian states started joining Piedmont.
Southern Italy, raised an army and started up towards rome, Cavour didn't want to provoke the French so stopped Garibaldi.
Unification of Germany
Zollverein = german customs union formed by Prussians. King William I wanted to double the army, and make military service required, liberals in parliament didn't want this because it would strengthen the influence too much, so William appointed new prime minister, Bismarck.
Otto von Bismarck
Guided Prussias unification of Germany, reorganized the army, blamed liberals for the breakdown of constitutional government.
Used by Otto von Bismarck, system of politics or principles based on practical rather than moral or ideological considerations.
The Danish War
Bismarck made sure Prussia would only be fighting one power. Arose because of the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, had large german populations but Danish gov. tried to put them in Denmark. Danes quickly defeated.
The Austro-Prussian War
Bismarck got Russia to stay neutral, as well as France, and allied with the Italian state and promised it land. Used the joint-occupation of Schleswig-Holstein (from danish war) to get the Austrians to war. Expected Austrian victory, but Prussians won, did not want to make an enemy so didn't make Austrians give up much land, but excluded them from German affairs.
The Franco-Prussian War
The throne of Spain was offered to someone of the Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen relative, Bismarck wanted this because then France would be surrounded by the Hohenzollern dynasty, French wanted formal apology, Bismarck "provoked" war from French. Prussia stronger army than France, Second French Empire collapsed, French lost, William I proclaimed kaiser (emperor) of the Second German Empire. German unity had been achieved by Prussia.
The Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary
Act of emancipation in 1848 that freed serfs, Centralized autocracy was imposed on the empire Hungary subjected to the rule of military officers and Catholic church was given control of education.
The compromise of 1867 that created the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary. Austria and Hungary each had its own capital, constitution, and legislative assembly but were united under one monarch. Didn't really take into account the minorities.
Reforms of Alexander II
Issued emancipation edict, ending serfdom in Russia, but peasants not actually that free. Created Zemstvos, local assemblies that provided some self-government. Populism= create a new society through the revolutionary acts of the peasants.
British Reforms of the Victorian Era
Reform act of 1867 was step towards the democratization of Britain, lowered requirements for voting. Education act of 1870 made elementary schools available for all children.
The continued growth of Democracy (Great Britain and France)
Britain: Expansion of suffrage continued the growth of Democracy Reform act of 1884 said that all men who paid regular rents or taxes could vote. Paid members of the House of Commons, so not only wealthy could be in it.
Act of Union of 1801 united the English and Irish parliaments. The Irish detested the British. Irish wanted at least land reform, Parnell called for "home rule" which was self-government by having a separate constitution but not fully independent. Remained unresolved.
The Paris Commune
French people rejected the republicans and favored monarchists, in response radical republicans formed an independent republican government known as the commune. National Assembly wanted to crush Paris Commune, fighting broke out, working class men and women fought for commune, government troops killed thousands of commune supporters, ending it.
The Third Republic SOCIALIST??
National assembly took to long to decide who should be king and missed their chance, The Third Republic was solidified by the Constitution of 1875.
Abandoned liberals and began to persecute the socialists. Enacted social welfare legislation, which established benefits as well as pensions, the most progressive social security system the world had ever seen.
The name given to Bismarck's attack on the Catholic Church in Germany; has come to refer to conflict between church and state anywhere.
Socialists, pointed out that a full pension was only payable at age 70 after 48 years of working, if the male died the wife or kids would not get anything. Social Democrats growing.
Minorities in Austria-Hungary
Germans governed Austria but made up only one third of the population. Minorities were Czechs, Poles, and other Slavic groups. Loyalty to the Catholic church made minority groups loyal to the Catholic Habsburg dynasty.
Alexander III's Russia
Thought that reform had been a mistake, advocates of constitutional monarch and social reform were persecuted. Banned use of all languages but Russian in school, "Russification"
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