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Scope, history and prokarya Chapter 1.

microbiology organisms

can't be seen with naked eye; they only have presence of genetic material or presence of protein in common with higher organisms; no tissues, diseases

non-cellular organisms

viruses wrapped in protein, viroids RNA molecules, prions infectious proteins

cellular organisms

Prokarya and eukarya


archae, bacteria no true nucleus-but nucleoid; ribosomes not membrane bound


protozoa (protists), alge, fungi (both mold and yeast) single celled generally (fungi can be uni or multicellular)

ecology of microorganisms

ubiquitous; everywhere in nature; air, water, soil, in and on other organisms

microbial roles

producers, 1st order consumers, 2nd Order consumers, decomposers

producers - organisms

photosynthesis converts light energy to chemical, basis of food chains and pyramids alga, some bacteria, some Archae - autotroph

1st order consumer

consumes the producers; herbivores; protozoa that only east plants

2nd order consumer

consumes 1st order consumers; protozoa that eats both plants and is carnivore


Decomposers (or saprotrophs) are organisms that break down dead or decaying organisms; recycle nutrients via biogeochemical cycles

biogeochemical cycles

Nitrogen, Carbon, Sulfur, Iron, phosphorus, a pathway by which a chemical element or molecule moves through both biotic (biosphere) and abiotic (lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere) compartments of Earth.

microbes produce

oxygen, soil, food, base of food chain indirect, harvest algae and guni (direct), enzymes (fermentation), drugs, (antibiotics, steroids, alcohols, proteins) recycling thru cycles, water purification; damage plants, animals, humans via disease; easy to grow, suitable for genetic engineering.

hebrew laws

quarantine and sanitation reduced spread of disease


believed the the world was comprehensible, 640 BC


disturbance between fire, water, earth and air


all objects composed of invisible particles, atoms


4 humors, blood, phlegm, black and yellow bile - related to fire, water, earth and air

van Leeuwenhoek

father of the microscope, ground lenses; saw first microorganisms

spontaneous generation

belief that living organisms can develop from non-living material


that all living organisms are derived from living organisms of the same type


refuted spontaneous generation; maggots don't generate from meat


assumed boiling kills everything; boiled broth no covers; supported spontaneous generation


biogenesis; boiled broth and sealed flask; he destroyed vegetative force


biogenesis; boiled broth and heated air; also destroyed vegetative force


Swan flask; disproves spontaneous generation;


intermittent boiling; eliminates endospores; tyndallization


endospores discovered; overthrew spontaneous generation permanently

Schwann and Schleiden

Cell Theory - zooologist and botanist; all animal tissue and plant tissue are comprised of cells;


saw mitosis; all cells come from preexisting cells


Golden Age; 4 postulates associating specific organisms with particular diseases; first proof microbbes are associate with disease, 25 pathogens discovered; petri plates and TSA soy agar; test tube sterile TSB soy broth

microscope definition

contrast between a microbe and its background

microscope resolution

shows adjacent points as distinct and different


magnify, define, resolve - can't be seen with naked eye

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