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34 terms

Beginning MB & History

Scope, history and prokarya Chapter 1.
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microbiology organisms
can't be seen with naked eye; they only have presence of genetic material or presence of protein in common with higher organisms; no tissues, diseases
non-cellular organisms
viruses wrapped in protein, viroids RNA molecules, prions infectious proteins
cellular organisms
Prokarya and eukarya
prokarya
archae, bacteria no true nucleus-but nucleoid; ribosomes not membrane bound
eukarya
protozoa (protists), alge, fungi (both mold and yeast) single celled generally (fungi can be uni or multicellular)
ecology of microorganisms
ubiquitous; everywhere in nature; air, water, soil, in and on other organisms
microbial roles
producers, 1st order consumers, 2nd Order consumers, decomposers
producers - organisms
photosynthesis converts light energy to chemical, basis of food chains and pyramids alga, some bacteria, some Archae - autotroph
1st order consumer
consumes the producers; herbivores; protozoa that only east plants
2nd order consumer
consumes 1st order consumers; protozoa that eats both plants and is carnivore
decomposers
Decomposers (or saprotrophs) are organisms that break down dead or decaying organisms; recycle nutrients via biogeochemical cycles
biogeochemical cycles
Nitrogen, Carbon, Sulfur, Iron, phosphorus, a pathway by which a chemical element or molecule moves through both biotic (biosphere) and abiotic (lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere) compartments of Earth.
microbes produce
oxygen, soil, food, base of food chain indirect, harvest algae and guni (direct), enzymes (fermentation), drugs, (antibiotics, steroids, alcohols, proteins) recycling thru cycles, water purification; damage plants, animals, humans via disease; easy to grow, suitable for genetic engineering.
hebrew laws
quarantine and sanitation reduced spread of disease
Thales
believed the the world was comprehensible, 640 BC
Alcmaeon
disturbance between fire, water, earth and air
Democritus
all objects composed of invisible particles, atoms
Hippocrates
4 humors, blood, phlegm, black and yellow bile - related to fire, water, earth and air
van Leeuwenhoek
father of the microscope, ground lenses; saw first microorganisms
spontaneous generation
belief that living organisms can develop from non-living material
biogenesis
that all living organisms are derived from living organisms of the same type
Redi
refuted spontaneous generation; maggots don't generate from meat
Needham
assumed boiling kills everything; boiled broth no covers; supported spontaneous generation
Spallanzani
biogenesis; boiled broth and sealed flask; he destroyed vegetative force
Schwann
biogenesis; boiled broth and heated air; also destroyed vegetative force
Pasteur
Swan flask; disproves spontaneous generation;
Tyndall
intermittent boiling; eliminates endospores; tyndallization
Cohn
endospores discovered; overthrew spontaneous generation permanently
Schwann and Schleiden
Cell Theory - zooologist and botanist; all animal tissue and plant tissue are comprised of cells;
Virchow
saw mitosis; all cells come from preexisting cells
Koch
Golden Age; 4 postulates associating specific organisms with particular diseases; first proof microbbes are associate with disease, 25 pathogens discovered; petri plates and TSA soy agar; test tube sterile TSB soy broth
microscope definition
contrast between a microbe and its background
microscope resolution
shows adjacent points as distinct and different
microscopes
magnify, define, resolve - can't be seen with naked eye