Terms in this set (173)
hind sight bias
I knew it was gonna happen all along.
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
everyone thinks they're above average
perceiving order in random events
lumping up random events
guessing the reason to something and it being true
theories, hypotheses, research/observation, theories
how to measure happiness
1st find out the operational definition then detect with measure as well as validity and reliability and finally the power.
look at 1 individual how ever not everyone acts like that one subject
law of large numbers random selection
test everyone in a given population
asking people to report however people may not know or be to overconfident in themselves or just lie
watching the environment and documenting however it can take a while before you get a good sample size because you might not be able to watch something 24/7
naturalistic observation, survey, and case study
Dealing with how we know the world around us through our senses; mental
relationship of 2 variable where they move predictably in a related pattern
when both increase or decrease together
when one increases the other decreases
no reductive relationship between variables
correlations pros and cons
pro - allows us to predict sometimes can't determine cause and indicates there is a relationship thats potentially worth investigating a reason for
cons - correlation does not equal causation
it varies ranges from -1 to 1, closer to +/- 1 = stronger relationship, closer to 0 = weaker relationship
independent and dependent variables
dependent variable DEPENDS upon independent variable
independent variable is one we manipulate (control) to see the impact on the DV
dependent variable is what we measure or are testing
In an experiment, the standard that is used for comparison
The variable that is varied or manipulated by the researcher.
The measurable effect, outcome, or response in which the research is interested.
memories 3 components
encoding storage and retrieval
The processing of information into the memory system.
The retention of encoded information over time.
the process of getting information out of memory storage
when you are focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or event
critical to everyday functioning and to encode memories
without conscious effort
implicit memories (memory you don't pay attention to) -priming -procedural memory
studying with conscious effort and attention
levels of processing
a continuum of memory processing from shallow to intermediate to deep, with deeper processing producing better memory
It focuses on the relationship between signifiers—like words, phrases, signs, and symbols—and what they stand for, their denotation.
effortful processing strategies
Elaboration, visual imagery, and organization of information
other ways to encode?
distributed practice, testing effect, and making material personally meaningful
what can provide organizational framework
items are hung on a system of already well known pegs (connecting words with things you can recall)
connecting a term with a location you know
The process of actively relating new information to knowledge that is already in memory
Learn by seeing things
Involve expanding on the info. forming associations or connecting new info to what you already know
The process of categorizing information according to the relationships among a series of items
role of attention
when You need to pay attention to something in order to begin the memory process
maintain info over time
3 major divisions - -distinguished by amount of time they hold info sensory register, short term memory, and long term memory
1st stage that hold an exact copy of what we see or hear
Last a few seconds or less
Icon - fleeting mental image
Echo - brief auditory
short term memory
2nd stage that holds small amounts of info for a brief period 15 to 20 min
Very sensitive to interference and decay
Capacity can hold 7 + or - 2 items
Combining small pieces of information into larger clusters or chunks that are more easily held in short-term memory.
study techniqe where you write down the gifts from the song the twelve days of christmas
a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory
long term memory
3rd stage that has a unlimited capacity storage
Holds info over lengthy periods
influence of past on behavior not trying to recollect and are generally unaware you are remembering the past
implied by persons actions
cerebellum and basal ganglia
Consciously retrieving past knowledge
semantic and episodic memories are examples
Located in the Hippocampus
can't transfer new information into ltm
Length of time can very
Cant recall info acquired before particular date
can't remember things from your past
the biopsychosocial approach
Javier has a problem controlling his temper and violent behavioral outbursts. Considering the complexity of his problem, ______ is the best approach to understanding his problems.
Is alcohol addiction biologically determined or culturally influenced? This question is most relevant to the _____ issue.
You're having trouble coping with stressful life events, so you begin seeing a therapist. The therapist emphasizes the importance of your need for love and acceptance. Her approach is best described as _____.
Curiosity, skepticism, and humility(humble)
what are the main components of the scientific attitude?
It is 1965, and B. F. Skinner is giving a lecture to your psychology class. He defines psychology as "the scientific study of _____."
multiple levels of analysis.
An approach that considers different but complementary biological, psychological, and social-cultural influences to explain a given phenomenon is incorporating:
A local news program reported that, "Sixty-eight percent of our viewers think a property tax hike is a good idea." Vince accepted this conclusion and did not wonder whether it was justified by the evidence. For example, he failed to think about the fact that only about 3000 text messages had been received, but the program probably had tens of thousands of viewers. Vince was NOT demonstrating:
Titchener is to structuralism as James is to _____.
levels of analysis.
Utilizing different research perspectives to study the same behavior that together give us a more complete understanding represent different:
Doubting a claim because it is not based on scientific evidence exemplifies:
Your professor directs a child and adolescent clinic that focuses on helping patients change their behavior, not on helping them understand themselves or satisfy their inner needs. Which branch of psychology is represented in your professor's views?
In her research, Dr. Boxer focuses on how the natural selection of traits has promoted the survival of genes. Dr. Boxer's interests illustrate the_____ perspective.
tested; an empirical approach
The idea that parental behaviors determine a child's future career may seem plausible, while the idea that one's future can be predicted on the basis of the positions of the planets at one's birth may not. However, both ideas should be _____ using _____ to see if they hold up under scrutiny.
Dr. Wright is a therapist who believes that our unconscious thought processes impact our behavior, which is a core belief of:
Professor Paulssen believes that children in every culture can distinguish between costs and benefits because humans have an inborn understanding of economics. This belief is most consistent with the views of the ancient philosopher _____.
Your professor argues that children's innate concept of justice enables them to distinguish between fair and unfair rules. This argument is most consistent with the views of the ancient philosopher _____.
Dr. Jackson is licensed to prescribe drugs and otherwise treat the physical causes of psychological disorders. He is a:
The leader of a self-help group has asked you to recommend an approach to psychology that emphasizes personal growth and people's need for love and acceptance. Which branch of psychology would you recommend for this group?
Dr. Casson prescribes an antidepressant for a patient who is exhibiting symptoms of depression. Dr. Casson is a(n) _____.
Curiosity, skepticism, and humility, which are essential when considering researchers' claims, prepare us to examine any assumptions behind the claims, discern hidden biases, and evaluate the evidence. This demonstrates how the scientific attitude is related to _____ thinking.
A psychologist asks research participants to report their immediate sensations, images, and feelings as they taste a new soda, a research method called:
cause-effect relationship between exercise and depression.
Dr. Jacobiac prescribes exercise for his patients with depression because correlational studies show that people who exercise have lower-than-average incidences of depression. Dr. Jacobiac is on shaky ground because he does not know if there is a:
-statistical association between the number of hours a person exercises and the likelihood of the person being depressed.
-negative correlation between exercise and depression.
-cause-effect relationship between exercise and depression.
-positive correlation between exercise and depression.
Stress hormones increase glucose activity, which then fuels brain activity.
A long time ago, Leslie was stuck in an elevator for more than three hours. Though generally not claustrophobic, after two hours she felt like the elevator walls were closing in on her. Now, 10 years later, she still vividly recalls the details of the emotionally traumatic experience. What is MOST likely causing her long-lasting robust memory of this event?
cerebellum and basal ganglia.
Learning to ride a bike is likely to require activation of the:
the serial position effect.
At a block party, Cyndi meets nine new neighbors. Moments later, she can only remember the names of the first three and the last two neighbors she met. Her experience illustrates:
Remontia is trying to remember events from when she was 18 months old but is unable to do so. This is likely due to the fact that her _____ was not fully developed at that age.
Research has indicated that taking notes by long hand rather than verbatim on a laptop in class leads to _____ of material.
_____ is the inability to form new memories.
Research has indicated that verbatim laptop note taking in class leads to _____ of material.
Several months after watching a science fiction movie about space travel and alien abduction, Gilbert began to remember that aliens had abducted him and subjected him to many of the horrors portrayed in the movie. This is an example of _____.
Parents sometimes are unaware of how often they yell at their children. If they were aware of it, they would probably feel guilty or anxious. Sigmund Freud would have suggested that this illustrates:
Whenever Mark tries to recall his new cell-phone number, he keeps coming up with his old cell-phone number. Mark's failure to remember his new phone number is probably caused by:
the book was never acquried
Memories that are forgotten are like books that cannot be found in a library. Whats the best analogy to be used to explain encoding failure?
In an effort to recall his early life experiences, Jean-Jacques formed vivid mental images of the rooms in his childhood home. Jean-Jacques was engaged in the process of _____.
Kate often has vivid dreams that she recalls in great detail. The problem is that she can't figure out if she is remembering a dream or something that she actually experienced. This problem is known as _____.
Nathan suffered a brain injury in a motorcycle accident that makes it impossible for him to form new memories. He can, however, remember his life experiences before the accident. Nathan's memory difficulty MOST clearly illustrates:
have difficulty forgetting
If you witness a traumatic event, you're likely to _____ the event.
Shimi is studying for tomorrow's biology exam. He has been reading and taking notes for hours, and he feels like he cannot study any longer. To avoid _____, the best thing for Shimi to do at this point is to get ready to go to sleep.
Olga came home quite drunk from the party on Saturday night. Luckily she was given a ride home. She threw her purse down somewhere and immediately fell asleep. She may not be able to find her purse when she is sober because of _____ memory.
Nolan went to school one day with his zipper down. He considers it his most embarrassing moment ever and would rather forget that the event ever occurred. Nolan is exhibiting:
the misinformation effect.
While sitting in the park one day, Yancy witnessed a robbery. When asked by the police to describe the young criminal, Yancy recalled incorrectly that the criminal was a teenager rather than a young adult. This BEST illustrates:
The more similar information to be learned is, the more likely it is that _____ will occur.
Laurie has a Mitsubishi TV. The company's logo appears every time she turns the TV on. However, when asked, she is unable to describe the logo. This is because of:
Your friend, Maria, doesn't show up for a planned get-together, so you tell another friend, "Maria is really unreliable. She doesn't care about people's feelings." Later, when Maria apologizes and does something kind, you tell a friend, "Maria is always so nice to me!" This alteration of perception is explained by:
Darlene is trying to remember the name of a woman sitting next to her on the bus. She knows she met her at a party and is able to imagine where the woman was sitting. Darlene is using _____ to remember the woman's name.
Susan experienced emotion-triggered hormonal changes.
On a business trip last year, Susan and Pam flew from Los Angeles to Boston. Susan really hates to fly. In the middle of the flight, the plane experienced 20 minutes of very severe turbulence. Susan remembers this incident as if it were yesterday, but Pam cannot recall it. Why?
Six-year-old Leila has no memory of having been taken to the hospital when she was 2 years old. Her inability to remember this event is known as _____ amnesia.
Farley suffers from depression and is currently in treatment for it. His physician is using electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), which will affect his _____ memory. This has been found in laboratory animals as well.
John remembers very clearly the day his best friend died when a drunk driver hit him while he was riding on his bicycle. This would be considered a(n) _____ memory.
both shyness and birth order.
Dr. Aba is conducting a study to determine whether there is a relationship between birth order and shyness. Before conducting this study, Dr. Aba needs to develop an operational definition of:
sense of humor
Dr. Ruth decided to assess whether violent imagery affected people's sense of humor. She showed married couples either violent or nonviolent movie scenes. Then the couples watched a comedy skit, and Dr. Ruth's assistants measured how often the couples laughed. In this research, the dependent variable consisted of:
A _____ is all those in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn.
Which method offers the most reliable way of assessing whether caffeine consumption results in improved athletic performance?
The animal protection movement protests the use of animals in psychological, _______, and medical research.
overconfidence; hindsight bias
We cannot rely solely on intuition or common sense to explain psychological phenomena. This is because we tend to think we know more than we actually do know, known as _____, and because of the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon, or _____.
The head of an advertising agency predicts that the client's sales will double within six months after the new advertising campaign begins. This prediction is a hypothesis because it is:
Research results showed that experimental Drug R had a minimal-to-modest effect in reducing the symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The hypothesis that 200 mg of Drug R will reduce GAD symptoms by 25 percent, as evidenced by the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, needs to be revised, so the researchers decide to increase the dosage to 300 mg. This increase is a manipulation of the:
According to the SQ3R method, when you read only the headings and study the organization of a chapter, you are _____ that chapter.
hind sight bias
After seeing case information and an autopsy report, physicians may claim that they could have used the case information alone to predict the cause of death accurately. This illustrates an error in thinking known as _____.
sample size and sample bias
Dr. Loyola administers surveys to 15 refugees of the roughly 5000 refugees from Somalia who reside in Minneapolis because she is interested in their immigration experiences. After examining the survey answers, Dr. Petrie concludes that all refugees in Minnesota, roughly 12,000 in total, have experienced racism and discrimination since coming to the United States. What are some problems with this study?
An instructor has asked her class to create a study to examine the behavior of coyotes in a nearby preserve. Because the instructor is asking students simply to observe and record behavior, not to detect relationships among factors or explore cause and effect, which of the following methods should students choose?
hind sight bias
After some research, Albert chose six companies in which to invest money. His wife fully supported his decisions, so he made the investments. After a year, five companies had gone bankrupt, wiping out Albert's investments. His wife was furious, claiming that anyone could have seen that these companies were going to fail. This claim illustrates a thinking error called:
Conduct a case study by intensely interviewing the neighbor over the course of a year, but remember that anything one learns about her altruistic behaviors might not be relevant to the rest of the population.
Kari admires her neighbor, who is well known for having taken in numerous stray animals. Kari is also interested in studying how to get more people to adopt pets from the animal shelter. Which of the following is the BEST approach for studying this type of altruistic behavior?
Dr. Hernandez is interested in parent-child interaction in a play environment. Which of the following would be the BEST research method for this topic?
At the beginning of the school year, students were asked to predict several social behaviors such as how often they would call their parents, and to say how accurate they thought their predictions would be. Their predictions were not as accurate as they had thought they would be. This illustrates a phenomenon known as _____.
is a random and coincidental occurrence.
Marissa has correctly predicted the final score of her university's basketball games in two consecutive games. In this instance, we can reasonably conclude that Marissa's predictive accuracy:
The brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions is called:
visual sensory memory.
Echoic sensory memory lasts longer than?
Imagine a study in which participants are shown 2000 slides of houses and storefronts, each for only 10 seconds. Later, they are shown 300 of the original slides paired with slides they have not seen before. These participants would be able to recognize _____ percent of the slides they had seen before. We often recognize faces and places as quickly as we recognize a familiar voice.
_____ processing leads to better retention.
While taking his statistics exam, Mikhail is trying to remember a statistical formula that he studied the night before. However, he cannot seem to recall the correct information. Mikhail is failing to _____ information from his long-term memory.
explicit and implicit memory
Mr. Nydam is unable to remember playing golf on a particular course. However, the longer he plays the course, the more his game improves. His experience illustrates the difference in:
your conditioned fear of dogs
Which of the following will you MOST likely store as an implicit memory?
the date of your birth
a mental image of your best friend
your conditioned fear of dogs
Alasdair has a chemistry test in two days. He has to memorize the elements on the periodic table, so he writes them on index cards. He keeps the cards with him at all times and periodically reads through them. He is using _____ to encode information for storage.
The _____ facilitate formation of our procedural memories for skills.
all over the brain
If you were searching for the location of a particular memory, you would find it:
Our tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with our current mood is referred to as:
The _____ are involved in motor movements.
If you learn a list of chemistry terms while you are in a great mood, you have a better chance of recalling that list if you are also in a good mood when you take the exam. This is known as:
The neural storage of a long-term memory is known as:
Researchers continue to debate the origin of knowledge. Some believe that we are born with certain types of knowledge, while others believe that knowledge is gained through experience. Your professor believes that children learn language through experience. This approach is most similar to the ideas of the ancient philosopher_____.
The happier Judie feels, the more readily she recalls experiences with former teachers who were warm and generous. This BEST illustrates that emotional states can be _____.
Whenever Valerie experiences intense feelings of fear, she is overwhelmed with childhood memories of her abusive parents. Valerie's experience BEST illustrates:
Some patients suffering from amnesia are incapable of recalling events. Yet, they can be conditioned to blink their eyes in response to a specific sound. They have most likely suffered damage to the _____.
Eight-year-old Rebecca, 6-year-old Chris, and 2-year-old Bonnie are all thrilled to be home with their mom and dad on a snow day. Which child will be the MOST accurate in his or her recollection of this snow day, five years from now?
Ralph came home quite drunk from the party on Saturday night. Luckily he was given a ride home. He threw his apartment keys down somewhere and immediately fell asleep. He may not be able to find his keys when he is sober because of:
Six-year-old Fiona has no memory of having been taken to the hospital when she was 2 years old. Her inability to remember this event is known as: Think about Fiona's age.
he has a flashbulb memory for this event.
Hakeem has a very clear memory of his daughter's birth. He remembers the weather, what he was wearing, the sounds in the hallway, and the joy he felt. Psychologists would say that:
_____ is the inability to form new memories.
SQ3R is a method for improving _____.
According to _____, people may forget because they are repressing painful memories.
Repeatedly imagining nonexistent actions and events is called imagination inflation and can create _____.
Parents sometimes are unaware of how often they yell at their children. If they were aware of it, they would probably feel guilty or anxious. Sigmund Freud would have suggested that this illustrates _____.
Some people claim to have been molested as toddlers and infants, but memories of things happening before age _____ are unreliable.
After switching dorm rooms and getting a new phone number, Samantha found that it was harder to remember her previous dorm room's phone number. Samantha was experiencing:
Lacey, who rehearsed the information for her history exam by associating it with family stories
Which of the following students utilized the type of studying that helps retain information successfully?
~Lacey, who rehearsed the information for her history exam by associating it with family stories
~Clarissa, who set aside eight hours to cram for her physics exam
~Ricky, who stayed up all night to cram for his economics exam
~Charles, who studied for four different exams scheduled in the next two days and only got three hours of sleep
study in small increments over many days.
You have a big exam coming up and you want to do very well. To remember the most information, you should:
While taking an American history exam, Marie was surprised and frustrated by her momentary inability to remember the name of the first president of the United States. Her difficulty MOST clearly illustrates:
Whenever Reza tries to recall his new cell-phone number, he keeps coming up with his old cell-phone number. Reza's failure to remember his new phone number is probably caused by _____.
Janel was sexually abused by her uncle when she was 5 years old. This experience was so devastating and traumatic that she removed the memory from her conscious awareness. This is an example of:
1-3 elements of forgetting
1-transience (storage decay) -occurs because interference (retroactive and proactive)
2-Absentmindedness (encoding error) - lapse in attention never encoded
3-Blocking (TOT)-cant retrieve available information even when trying
4-6 elements of remembering/constructing
4-Misattribution/Misinformation- assigning recollection to wrong source
5-suggestibility -incorporate misleading information from external sources into recollects
6-Bias -Present knowledge/belief/feelngs bias recollection of past experiences
7-persistence -Events we wish we could forget, but can't.
7 memory failures
1 retroactive interference
the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
1 proactive interference
the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
2 forget to carry out events planned for the future
forget to carry out events planned for the future
2 Divided attention
reduced activation in lower left frontal lobe
2 prospective memory
forget to carry out events planned for the future
3 (TOT) Tip of the tongue
feeling when your on the verge of recalling names uncommon words which increases with age
4 source memory error/amnesia
Mistake in knowing when, where, how info was acquired
not remembering when or where but what can cause deja vu experiences
4 false recognition
novel encounter seems familiar
thing preschool children especially susceptible
5 misinformation effect
when recall of an event is altered by introducing misleading post event information
expectation also impacts memory - those who smashed were more likely to recall broken glass flying from a car when it didnt
who are easy to implant false memory such as where was the get away car parked and what did the gun look like?
5 repressed childhood memories
abuse or false memory
Loftus doesn't believe in repressed memories or an unconscious
6 Consistency Bias
Reconstruct past to fit what presently know/believe
Judgments on health issues i.e. marijuana/smoking
6 Change Bias
Exaggerate difference between feelings in past and present
Want love to grow with time report feeling it has yet actual ratings don't agree
6. Egocentric Bias
Exaggerate change to make self look good in retrospect
recall good grades with more accuracy than bad
7 Flashbulb memories
-Tied in with emotion: more emotional, harder to forget
-When and where you were at X
-Not always accurate, but better than mundane event