People whose civilization flourished in India between 2500 and 1500 B.C.E.they are the one of the oldest civilization developed near the bank of Indus river and disappeared in 1500 B.C.E. They were very peaceful.
the priestly caste who led ceremonies
tribes of Indo-European peoples that began to cross the Hindu Kush Mountains into northwestern India from north of the caspian and black seas
founder of Buddhism; born a prince; left his father's wealth to find the cause of human suffering; also know as Buddha
means, "Enlightened One" and former name: Suddhartha Guatama
Third ruler of the Mauryan Empire in India (r. 270-232 B.C.E.). He converted to Buddhism and broadcast his precepts on inscribed stones and pillars, the earliest surviving Indian writing.
seasonal wind patterns that cause wet and dry seasons.
a fortress on a hill; a stronghold
Hybrid of the Indus Valley Culture and Aryan culture.
sacred texts in the Hindu religion, they are a set of four collections of hymns and religious ceremonies transmitted by memory through the centuries by Aryan priests
A period in the history of India; It was a period of transition from nomadic pastoralism to settled village communities, with cattle the major form of wealth. When the Vedas were first composed.
The Hindu language, originating in 1500 B.C., in which the sacred scriptures are written.
a Hindu prince or king in India
A translation of the vernas Sometime between 750 and 550 BC. Hindu teachers tried to interpret and explain the hidden meaning of the Vedic hymns. The teacher's comments were later written down and became know as _______. They are written as dialogues, or discussions, between a student and a teacher. Of so common read about their faith in this they really explain the basic teaching of Hinduism common people.
long poems based on historical or religious themes
traditional division of Hindu society into various categories; there are four main varnas; or classes:Brahmin, kshatriya, vaishya, and shudra; each class contains certain subgroups, resulting in more than three thousand categories.
A short section of the epic poem Mahabharata in which the god Krishna teaches the great warrior Arjuna about bhakti marga and other ways to God; Hinduism's most popular text.
The social divisions of the Aryan Society that included from top to bottom: 1)priests (Brahmins), 2) rulers or warriors (Kshatriya) ; 3) farmers, craftspeople, traders (vaishya); 4) workers and servants (Sudras) 5. slaves (Pariahs/Untouchables)
the second of four classes of the caste system, traditionally made up of warrior and administrators.
the third of the four classes of the caste system, traditionally made up of producers, such as farmers, merchants, and artisans.
the second lowest of the five castes in the Indian social system and were not twice born; consisted of peasants and artisans which was most of the Indian population
the name of the group of people outside the caste system; they were the contained the outcasts of society and untouchables, were not considered a part of Indian society or the caste system
Priests, at the top of the caste system which the Aryans made
A king or prince in India ranking above a rajah.
an early Indian political treatise that sets forth many fundamental aspects of the relationship of rulers and their subjects
the presumption that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing
a single spiritual power that Hindus believe lives in everything
everyone's individual soul
a second or new birth; the Hindu or Buddhist doctrine that person may be reborn successively into one of five classes of living beings (god or human or animal or hungry ghost or denizen of hell) depending on the person's own actions
a body of religious and philosophical beliefs and cultural practices native to India and characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme beingof many forms and natures, by the view that opposing theories are aspects of one eternal truth
the religious and moral duties of Hindus
the force generated by a person's actions that determines how the person will be reborn in the next life
a place of ideal peace and harmony
Union with Brahman
a religion based on the teachings of buddha
An Indian prince named Siddhartha Gautama, who renounced his wealth and social position. After becoming 'enlightened' (the meaning of Buddha) he enunciated the principles of Buddhism. (180)
Four Noble Troops
Eight fold Path
Eight steps to end suffering according to Buddhist tradition; , 1- Right Conduct, 2- Right Speech, 3- Right means of livelihood, 4- Right knowledge, 5- Right intention, 6- Right effort, 7- Right mindfulness, 8- Right concentration
The basic moral requirements that are binding for all Buddhists; , 1) do not harm living things 2) do not steal 3) avoid over stimulation 4) do not say unkind things 5) do not take drugs/alcohol
ceremony at puberty whereby young males were initiated into adulthood and introduced into Indian society/top 3 classses assumed to be twice born
A sub-varna in the caste system that gave people of sense of community because they usually consisted of people working in the same occupation.
a Hindu or Buddhist religious leader and spiritual teacher
the Hindu ritual requiring a wife to throw herself upon her deceased husband's funeral pyre
Law of Manu
Rules for social behavior
a religion that branched off from Hinduism and was founded by Mahavira; its belief is that everything has a soul, and its purpose was to cleanse the soul. Some were extreme aesthetics.
Religion founded by Nanak that blended Islamic and Hindu Beliefs
the idea of self denial, self sacrifice, even self mutilation that was done to communicate with the gods and began to take the place of sacrifice in ancient India
a system of exercises practiced as part of the Hindu discipline to promote control of the body and mind
a Hindu god considered the preserver of the world
a Hindu god considered the destroyer of the world.
a key step in achieving nirvana, the root of both the word Buddhism and Buddha, means "wisdom"
basic Buddhist teachings of the Eightfold Path; it advises people to live in moderation, avoiding the extremes of either comfort or discomfort in the search for nirvana
Stone shrines built to house pieces of bone and personal possessions said to be relics of the Buddha; preserved Buddhist architectural forms.
global- chapter 3: ancient india and china60 terms