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8.E.2 Understand the history of Earth and its life forms based on evidence of change recorded in fossils records and landforms.
Terms in this set (63)
preserved remains or traces of an organism that lived in the past
a type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together
a type of fossil formed when a shell or other hard part of an organism dissolves, leaving an empty space in the shape of the part
A solid copy of the shape of an organism that is formed from a mold
a fossil in which minerals replace all or part of an organism
an extremely thin coating of carbon on rock
A type of fossil that provides evidence of the activities of ancient organisms.
Scientist who studies fossils
the gradual change in a species over time
no longer in existence
the age of a rock compared to the ages of rock layers
the age of a rock given as the number of years since the rock formed
law of superposition
The geologic principle that states that in horizontal layers of sedimentary rock, each layer is older than the layer above it and younger than the layer below it.
an igneous rock layer formed when lava flows onto Earth's surface and hardens
an igneous rock layer formed when magma hardens beneath Earth's surface
a crack in the earth's crust
a break in the geologic record created when rock layers are eroded or when sediment is not deposited for a long period of time; a gap in the rock record
smallest particle that makes up an element
a pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical or physical means
a technique used to determine the actual age of a fossil on the basis of the amount of a radioactive element it contains
a fossil found in a narrow time range but widely distributed around the Earth; used to date rock layers
the period of time in which half of a radioactive substance decays
geologic time scale
a record of the geologic events and life forms in Earth's history
one of the three long units of geologic time between the Precambrian and the present
an animal without a backbone
an animal with a backbone
a vertebrate that lives part of its life on land and part of its life in water
A vertebrate with scaly skin that lays eggs with tough, leathery shells.
event in which many types of living things become extinct at the same time
a warm-blooded vertebrate with hair or fur and females produce milk to feed their young
third planet from the sun; has an atmosphere that protects life and surface temperatures that allow water to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas
from outside in:
mantle (sort of gelatinous - closer to a liquid at the top, closer to a solid at the bottom)
outer core (liquid)
inner core (solid)
The theory that explains how large pieces of the lithosphere, called plates, move and change shape
any period of time during which glaciers covered a large part of the earth's surface
Big Bang Theory
(cosmology) the theory that the universe originated 20 billion years ago from the cataclysmic explosion of a small mass of matter at extremely high density and temperature
a chemical analysis used to determine the age of organic materials based on their content of the radioisotope carbon-14
Lived on earth for 150 million years, terrestrial, some on two legs which allowed for faster movement because of the pressure taken off the lungs. development of muscles that allowed them to run and breathe at the same time
Progressive biological and cultural change and development from our hominin ancestors to modern humans
a series of processes on the surface and inside Earth that slowly change rocks from one kind to another
French chemist (born in Poland) who won two Nobel Prizes one (with her husband and Henri Becquerel) for research on radioactivity and another for her discovery of radium and polonium (1867-1934)
the process by which an unstable nucleus gives off nuclear radiation
a white, radioactive metallic chemical element that weighs more than any other element in nature.
a science that deals with the history of the earth as recorded in rocks
cyclinders of ice drilled from thick glaciers to determine the types and amounts of gases that existed in the atmosphere when the ice was formed
individual sections of the lithosphere of the earth. They fit together in a way similar to a jigsaw puzzle, but are always moving very slowly, floating on the molten rock of the lower mantle.
the region where two tectonic plates are in contact
The process that creates new sea floor as plates move away from each other at the mid-ocean ridges
the bending of rock layers due to stress
(geology) a rise of land to a higher elevation (as in the process of mountain building)
molten rock in the earth's crust
magma that reaches Earth's surface
the process of continual change that the earth undergoes.
Name for the time in earths early history that accounts for ninety percent of earth's time, but only cellular organisms lived. , This is the oldest known geological era, having ended more than 570 mya.
loose materials, such as rock fragments,mineral grains, and the remains of once-living plants and animals, that have been moved by wind, water, ice, or gravity.
a unit of geological time during which a system of rocks formed
The first period of the oldest era on the geologic time scale.
the process of dropping, or depositing, sediment in a new location
a subdivision of geologic time that is longer than an age but shorter than a period
rock formed by the solidification of molten magma
A type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions
the longest division of geological time
The process by which wind, water, ice, or gravity transports soil and sediment from one location to another
the chemical and physical processes that break down rock at Earth's surface
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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