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51 terms

Med-Surg Ch. 15 IV Therapy

Some simple terms mixed in, but it helps to see exactly how a specific teacher defines something.
STUDY
PLAY
Infusion Therapy
The delivery of medication in solution and fluids by parenteral route.
Parenteral
Route of administration that involves piercing of the skin or mucous membrane
IV Therapy
The most common route for infusion therapy; delivers solutions directly into the veins.
Infusion
Infusion is used for:
fluid balance
acid-base balance
administering medications
replacing blood
Infusate
Solution that is infused into the body
Isotonic Solution
"Neutral" solution,does not affect the distribution of water within the body. (osmolarity of 250-375mOsm/L) Pt's are at risk for fluid overload.
Hypertonic Solution
"High" solution that moves water FROM body cells TO the bloodstream, commonly to correct electrolyte or acid-base imbalance. (osmolarity >375mOsm/L) Pt's at risk for phlebitis & infiltration.
Hypotonic Solution
"Low" solution that moves water TO body cells FROM the bloodstream. (osmolarity <250mOsm/L) Pt's at risk for phlebitis & infiltration.
Solution Mnemonics
Relate solution names to the effect on blood volume, and then the effect on tissue.
Hypertonic- "High" solution - will make the blood volume go UP, this water has to come FROM the body
Hypotonic - "Low" Solution - will make the blood volume go DOWN, this water has to go TO the body.
Phlebitis
Inflammation of a vein caused by chemical, mechanical or bacterial irritation.
Infiltration
Result of IV solution leaking into the tissues around a vein.
S/S: Swelling, blanching, numbness, coolness of tissue around IV site
Thrombosis
Blood clot in the vein.
S/S: Tenderness/swelling
Extravasation
Extreme infiltration, IV fluids administered to space outside the vein, such as in a misplaced IV or venous damage/leakage.
S/S: Swelling @ or proximal to IV site, discomfort/burning/blanching @ IV site
Blood
The Joint Commission requires two patient identifiers and two qualified healthcare professionals before administering blood.
The International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) universal barcoding system is most commonly used to ensure accuracy.
IV Orders
Require: Specific type of Fluid, rate in mL/hr or total volume and number of hours (may be mg/hr for continuous infusion med), specific information on any drugs or vitamins to be added,
Vascular Access Device
Any type of plastic tube placed in a blood vessel to deliver fluids and medications.
Vesicant Medication
Medication that can cause severe tissue damage if it inifltrates surrounding tissue. Should be administered via PICC line.
VAD
Vascular access device, any tubing inserted in the blood vessels to administer medication or fluids.
Midline Catheter
VAD used for hydration fluids, and therapy that is to last from 6 days to 4 weeks such as antibiotics or heparin infusions for DVT
Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter
PICC line - extends from insertion site (preferably basilic vein) to the superior vena cava, used to administer vesicant medications
CR BSI
Catheter-related Blood Stream Infection
Hypodermoclysis
Slow infusion of isotonic solutions into subcutaneous tissue. Recommended sites: upper & outer thigh, upper abdomen, and below the clavicle (solutions are better absorbed by areas with adipose tissue)
Intraosseous Therapy
Infusion into the red marrow of the bones. Contraindicated if the bone is fractured or in cases of severe osteoporosis. May cause osteomyelitis.
Compartment Syndrome
Increased tissue pressure in a confined anatomic space (such as bone marrow cavity) causes decreased blood flow to the area.
Intraperitoneal Therapy
Administration of chemotherapy drugs directly into the peritoneal cavity to treat intra-abdominal malignancies such as ovarian or GI tumors that have moves into the peritoneum.
Intraspinal Infusion
Medication administered into either the epidural space between the dura mater and vertebra, or the subarachnoid space between the arachnoid and pia mater.
Ampule
Small glass container that can be sealed and it's contents sterilized
Antebrachial
Pertaining to the forearm
Anterior
Front
Antiseptic
Preventing infection
Artery
Vessel carrying blood away from the heart to the body tissues
Asepsis
Sterile, free from infection
Aspirate
Remove by suction
Basilic
Large superficial vein on inner side of biceps
Cephalic
Large superficial vein on the outside of the biceps
Deltoid
Triangular muscle covering the shoulder
Distal
Farthest from the center, medial line or trunk
Distend
Stretch out
Dorsal
Positioned to the back
Intravenous
Within or into a vein
Muscle
Tissue composed of contractile cells or fibers which affect movement
Palpate
To examine by touch
Posterior
Toward the rear or caudal end
Radial
Pulse felt at the wrist
Syringe
Instrument for injecting fluid into cavities or vessels
Tourniquet
Constrictive device used to distend veins to facilitate venipuncture or IV injections
Vein
Vessel that carries blood from the body tissues to the heart
Venipuncture
Puncture of a vein for any purpose
Venous
Pertaining to veins or the blood passing through them
Bacteremia
Infection that can be caused by improper technique, cross-contamination or prolonged IV use
S/S: Fever, increased pulse, body aches, redness @ IV site
Repeat
We were told for testing purposes to learn the osmolarity ranges in the handout, which differ from our textbook.
Hypertonic: >375mOsm/L
Isotonic: 250-375mOsm/L
Hypotonic: <250mOsm/L