Infusion is used for:
"Neutral" solution,does not affect the distribution of water within the body. (osmolarity of 250-375mOsm/L) Pt's are at risk for fluid overload.
"High" solution that moves water FROM body cells TO the bloodstream, commonly to correct electrolyte or acid-base imbalance. (osmolarity >375mOsm/L) Pt's at risk for phlebitis & infiltration.
"Low" solution that moves water TO body cells FROM the bloodstream. (osmolarity <250mOsm/L) Pt's at risk for phlebitis & infiltration.
Relate solution names to the effect on blood volume, and then the effect on tissue.
Hypertonic- "High" solution - will make the blood volume go UP, this water has to come FROM the body
Hypotonic - "Low" Solution - will make the blood volume go DOWN, this water has to go TO the body.
Result of IV solution leaking into the tissues around a vein.
S/S: Swelling, blanching, numbness, coolness of tissue around IV site
Extreme infiltration, IV fluids administered to space outside the vein, such as in a misplaced IV or venous damage/leakage.
S/S: Swelling @ or proximal to IV site, discomfort/burning/blanching @ IV site
The Joint Commission requires two patient identifiers and two qualified healthcare professionals before administering blood.
The International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) universal barcoding system is most commonly used to ensure accuracy.
Require: Specific type of Fluid, rate in mL/hr or total volume and number of hours (may be mg/hr for continuous infusion med), specific information on any drugs or vitamins to be added,
Vascular Access Device
Any type of plastic tube placed in a blood vessel to deliver fluids and medications.
Medication that can cause severe tissue damage if it inifltrates surrounding tissue. Should be administered via PICC line.
Vascular access device, any tubing inserted in the blood vessels to administer medication or fluids.
VAD used for hydration fluids, and therapy that is to last from 6 days to 4 weeks such as antibiotics or heparin infusions for DVT
Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter
PICC line - extends from insertion site (preferably basilic vein) to the superior vena cava, used to administer vesicant medications
Slow infusion of isotonic solutions into subcutaneous tissue. Recommended sites: upper & outer thigh, upper abdomen, and below the clavicle (solutions are better absorbed by areas with adipose tissue)
Infusion into the red marrow of the bones. Contraindicated if the bone is fractured or in cases of severe osteoporosis. May cause osteomyelitis.
Increased tissue pressure in a confined anatomic space (such as bone marrow cavity) causes decreased blood flow to the area.
Administration of chemotherapy drugs directly into the peritoneal cavity to treat intra-abdominal malignancies such as ovarian or GI tumors that have moves into the peritoneum.
Medication administered into either the epidural space between the dura mater and vertebra, or the subarachnoid space between the arachnoid and pia mater.
Infection that can be caused by improper technique, cross-contamination or prolonged IV use
S/S: Fever, increased pulse, body aches, redness @ IV site