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Origins of Life/ Evolution Test
Terms in this set (21)
What were the components of the Miller-Urey Experiment?
1. Water to represent the ocean
2. Gases to represent the primitive atmosphere
3. Electrical spark to represent lightning
What was the result of the Miller-Urey Experiment?
This experiment found that it is possible for the synthesis of organic materials under the conditions of the experiment.
Why was MIller-Urey Experiment so widely accepted today?
He was able to synthesize organic molecules successfully in the laboratory
What happened during the Heavy Bombardment?
This was a time when many meteors and asteroids were hitting the earth making it very unsuitable for life to form. Once the meteors stopped hitting earth we start to see the first life forms.
Why is cyanobacteria so important to the origin of life?
Cyanobacteria evolved to use photosynthesis as a source of food and energy.
Since photosynthesis gives off oxygen as a by-product these Cyanobacteria started to oxygenate the earth. They created most of the oxygen that we breathe today.
What is the endosymbyotic theory?
One prokaryotic bacteria engulfed another. They both provide benefits to each other and are better off together than separate
How do scientist believe prokaryotes evolve to eukaryotes?
Prokaryotic bacteria start to evolve into Eukaryotic cells thanks to the Endosymbiotic theory
What is chemical evolution?
States that in order for life to occur, first we need the synthesis of organic materials like carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen.
What is the theory of evolution?
*change in the gene pool over timer
*the theory that we all come from a common ancestor
Define Homologous Structures?
structures that have similar structure and form but are different in function
Define Analogous Structures?
structures that have similar function but are different in structure and form
Define Vestigial Structures?
remnants of structures that may have had important functions in ancestral species but have no clear function in some of the modern descendants
What is comparative embryology?
comparing and contrasting embryos of different species to show how all animals are related
*All vertebrate embryos start out similar in appearance
What is Molecular Comparison?
evidence of evolution through common DNA sequences of organisms
What is the difference between homologous structures and analogous structures, other than the obvious definition differences.
The biggest difference between the Homologous structures and the Analogous structures is this: the Homologous structures have a recent ancestors, and the Analogous structures' ancestors are more ancient.
What are the 5 fingers of evolution?
Review by watching the video:
Define Genetic Drift
the change in population by chance
natural processes that produce genetic diversity
Define Gene Flow
The movement and exchange of genes or alleles from one population of species to another
Define Natural Selection
an organisms with favorable genetic variation will tend to survive and breed successfully.
"nature choosing the best"
What is the link between jaw size and hominid evolution?
Over time jaws of hominids evolved to be smaller and less protruding