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an approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 606)
treatment involving psychological techniques; consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 606)
Freud's theory of personality and therapeutic technique that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts. Freud believed the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences—and the therapist's interpretations of them—released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e pp. 480, 606)
in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 607)
in psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 607)
in psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent). (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 607)
therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and that seeks to enhance self-insight. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 608)
a variety of therapies that aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing the client's awareness of underlying motives and defenses. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 609)
a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients' growth. (Also called person-centered therapy.) (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 609)
empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers' client-centered therapy. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 609)
unconditional positive regard
a caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude, which Carl Rogers believed would help clients to develop self-awareness and self-acceptance. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e pp. 491, 610)
therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 611)
a behavior therapy procedure that uses classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors; includes exposure therapies and aversive conditioning. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 611)
behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actuality) to the things they fear and avoid. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 611)
a type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 611)
virtual reality exposure therapy
An anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 612)
a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol). (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 613)
an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 614)
therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 614)
a popular integrative therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior). (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 616)
therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by, or directed at, other family members. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 617)
regression toward the mean
the tendency for extreme or unusual scores to fall back (regress) toward their average. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 621)
a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 621)
clinical decision-making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 623)
prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient's nervous system. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 628)
the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 628)
drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorder. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 629)
involuntary movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and limbs; a possible neurotoxic side effect of long-term use of antipsychotic drugs that target certain dopamine receptors. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 629)
drugs used to treat depression; also increasingly prescribed for anxiety. Different types work by altering the availability of various neurotransmitters. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 630)
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 632)
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)
the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 634)
surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 635)
a now-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 635)
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