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Psych for AP - Unit 3B

Psych for AP - Unit 3B
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lesion
tissue destruction. A naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 067)
electroencephalogram (EEG)
an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 067)
CT (computed tomography) scan
a series of X-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body. Also called CAT scan. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 068)
PET (positron emission tomography) scan
a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 068)
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue. They scans show brain anatomy. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 068)
fMRI (functional MRI)
a technique for revealing bloodflow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. These scans show brain function. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 068)
brainstem
the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; It is responsible for automatic survival functions. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 069)
medulla
the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 069)
reticular formation
a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 070)
thalamus
the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 070)
cerebellum
the "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 070)
limbic system
doughnut-shaped neural system (including the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus) located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions and drives. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 071)
amygdala
two lima bean-sized neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to emotion. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 071)
hypothalamus
a neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 072)
cerebral cortex
the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 074)
glial cells (glia)
cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 074)
frontal lobes
portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 074)
parietal lobes
portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 074)
occipital lobes
portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes areas that receive information from the visual fields. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 074)
temporal lobes
portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 074)
motor cortex
an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 075)
sensory cortex
area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 077)
association areas
areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 078)
aphasia
impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke's area (impairing understanding). (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 080)
Broca's area
controls language expression—an area, usually in the left frontal lobe, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 080)
Wernicke's area
controls language reception—a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 080)
plasticity
the brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 082)
neurogenesis
the formation of new neurons. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 083)
corpus callosum
the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 084)
split brain
a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain's two hemispheres by cutting the fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) connecting them. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 084)
consciousness
our awareness of ourselves and our environment. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e pp. 089, 176)
cognitive neuroscience
the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language). (Myers Psychology for AP 1e pp. 007, 089)
dual processing
the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 090)