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Grana, thylaokoids, and stroma are all components found in


Most of a eukaryotic cell's genes are found in the


Which of these processes can move a solute against its concentration gradient

active transport

Which of these is a difference between DNA and RNA?

DNA contains thymine, RNA contains uracil

Organelles that contain DNA include

mitochondria and chloroplasts

Which of these structures is unique to plant cells?

central vacuole

In animal cells, hydrolytic enzymes are packages to prevent destruction of cellular components. Which of the following organelles function in this compartmentalization?


The primary structure of a protein is

the amino acid sequence of the polypeptide chain

Which of the following factors would tend to increase membrane fluidity?

a great proportion of unsaturated phospholipids

Which of the following cell components is not directly involved in synthesis or secretion?


Which of the following are prokaryotic cells?


Which of the following processes includes all others?

passive transport

A biologist ground up some plant cells then centrifuged the mixture. She obtained some organelles from the sediment in the test tube. the organelles took up CO2 and gave off O2. The organelles are most likely


Cells can be described as having a cytoskeleton of internal structure that contributes to shape, organization, and movement of the cell. All of the following are part of the cytoskeleton except

the cell wall

Microfilaments are well known for their role of which of the following?

contracting of muscle cells, formation of cleavage furrows, ameboid movement

Which of the following is not found in a prokaryotic cell

endoplasmic reticulum

According to the fluid mosaic model of membrane structure, proteins of the membrane are mostly

embedded in a lipid bilayer

A bacterial cell's DNA is found in its

nucleoid region

Ions can travel directly from the cytoplasm of one animal cell to the cytoplasm of an adjacent cell through

gap junctions

Which of these is not a component of the endomembrane system?


Which of the following is not a known function of the cytoskeleton?

to maintain a critical limit on cell size

In a hypotonic solution, an animal cell will


Large numbers of ribosomes are present in cells that specialize in producing which of the following molecules?


Which of the following is capable of converting light energy to chemical energy?


A cell has the following molecules and structures: enzymes, DNA, ribosomes, plasma membrane, and mitochondria. It could be a cell from

a plant or animal

Which type of organelle is primarily involved in the synthesis of oil, phospholipids, and steroids?

smoother endoplasmic reticulum

Carbohydrates generally have a molecular formula

in which carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are present in a ratio of 1:2:1.

Of the following, which is probably the most common route for membrane flow in the endomembrane system?

rough ER -> vesicles -> Gogli -> plasma membrane

Which structure is the site of the synthesis of proteins that may be exported from the cell?

rough ER

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

lysosomes, protein synthesis

Which of the following relationships between cell structures and their respective function is NOT correct?

chloroplasts: chief site of protein synthesis

Oxygen crosses a plasma membrane by

passive transport

The interior of the phospholipid bilayer is


All of the following molecules are part of the cell membrane except

nucleic acids

White blood cells engulf bacteria through what process?


Celery stalks that are immersed in fresh water for several hours become stiff and hard. Similar stalks left in a salt solution become limp and soft. From this we can deduce that the celery stalks are

hypertonic to fresh water but hypotonic to the salt solution

What are the membrane structures that function in active transport?

integral proteins

Ions diffuse across membranes down their

electrochemical gradients

Which of the following types of molecules are the major structural components of the cell membrane?

phospholipids and proteins

The movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration gradient with the help of energy input is which of the following?

active transport

What membrane-surface molecules are thought to be most important as cells recognize each other?


All of the following cellular activities require ATP energy EXCEPT

movement of O2 into the cell.

All of the following are functions of integral proteins except

enzyme synthesis

Which of the following statements is CORRECT about diffusion?

it is a passive process in which molecules move from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration

The presence of cholesterol in the plasma membranes of some animals

enables the membrane to stay fluid more easily when cell temperature drops

The kinds of molecules that pass through a cell membrane most easily are

small and hydrophobic

Glucose diffuses slowly through artificial phospholipid bilayers. The cells lining the small intestine, however, rapidly move large quantities of glucose from the glucose-rich food into their glucose-poor cytoplasm. Using this information, which transport is most probably functiong in the intestinal cells?

facilitated diffusion

Which of the following adheres to the extracellular surface of animal cell plasma membranes?

fibers of the extra cellular matrix

IMAGE Initially, in terms of molarity, the solution in side A with respect to that in side B is

isotonic IMAGE

IMAGE After the system reaches equilibrium, what changes are observed?

The water level is higher in side A than in side B. IMAGE

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