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Final AP Bio Exam
Terms in this set (100)
A plant has a unique photosynthetic pigment. The leaves of this plant appear to be reddish yellow. What wavelengths of visible light are being absorbed by this pigment?
Blue & Violet
Which functional groups are present in all amino acids
D and C (amino group and Carboxyl)
Which statement best supports the hypothesis that glycolysis is an ancient metabolic pathway that originated before the last universal common ancestor of life on earth
Glycolysis is widespread and is found in the domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya
(Cell Chart) the best conclusion concerning that the cells are in
Are actually in G0
Stanley Miller 1953 experiments assumed that early Earth's atmosphere contained
Ammonia methane, hydrogen, gas and water vapor
Which of the following is true of metabolism in its entirety in all organisms
Metabolism consists of all the energy transformations reactions in an organism
The termination phase of cell signaling requires which of the following?
Removal of the signal molecule to the receptor
Which of the following occurs in meiosis but not in mitosis?
Synapsis of chromosomes
Prokaryotes are classified as belonging to two different domains, what are the domains
Bacteria and archaea
A solution contains .0000001 moles of hydroxyl ions per liter. Which of the following best describes this solution
Which of the following descriptions best fits the class of molecules known as nucleotides?
a nitrogenous base, a phosphate group, and a pentose sugar
Upon chemical analysis, a particular polypeptide was found to contain 100 amino acids, how many peptide bonds are present?
A chemical reaction has a positive G is correctly described
Reduction of NADP+ occurs during
Where does apoptotic signals come from
All of the above
Which of the following does not occur in mitosis?
Replication of the DNA
Starting with a fertilized egg (zygote), a series of five cell divisions would produce an early embryo with how many cells?
Thalidomide and L-dopa, shown below, are examples of pharmaceutical drugs that occur as enantiomers or molecules that
are mirror images of eachother
A primary objective of cell fractions is to
Separate the major organelles so that their particular functions can be determined
According to the fluid mosaic model of membrane structure, proteins of the membrane are mostly
Embedded in a lipid bilayer
How many oxygen molecules are required each time a molecule of glucose is completely oxidized to carbon dioxide and water via aerobic respiration?
Where does the Calvin Cycle take place?
Stroma of the chloroplast
Where do the microtubules of the spindle originate during mitosis in both plant and animal cells?
Which of the steps takes place in both mitosis and meiosis?
3 (separation of the sister chromatids)
If the pH of a solution is increased from pH 5 to pH 7, it means that
Concentration of OH- is 100 times greater than what it was at pH 5
There are 20 different amino acids. What makes one amino acid different from another?
different side chains (R groups) attached to an α carbon
Which of the following produces and modifies polysaccharides that will be secreted?
Which of the following would most likely move through the lipid bilayer of a plasma membrane most rapidly?
How does a non competitive inhibitor decrease the rate of enzyme reaction?
By changing the shape of the enzyme's active site
Which of the following terms best describes the forward reaction in figure 8.1?
Exergonic, G < 0
Which of the following represents the G reaction in Figure 8.1?
Approximately how many molecules of ATP are produced from the complete oxidation of two molecules of glucose in aerobic cellular respiration
Which of the following are products of the light reactions of photosynthesis that are utilized in the Calvin Cycle?
ATP and NADPH
In the formation of biofilms, such as those forming on unbrushed teeth, cell signaling serves which function?
Aggregation of bacteria that can cause cavities
How many electrons does carbon share in order to complete its valence shell?
WHich of the following produces the most atp which glucose is completely oxidized to carbon dioxide and water?
Which of the following is true of transcription factors?
They control gene expression
After which checkpoint is the cell first committed to continue the cell cycle through M?
Which of the following best summarized the relationship between dehydration reactions and hydrolysis?
Dehydration reactions assemble polymers , and hydrolysis reactions break down polymers
Which of the following types of signaling is represented in the figure?
In the figure, the dots in the space between the two structure represent which of the following?
In a human karyotype, chromosomes are arranged into 23 pairs. If we choose one of these pairs, such as pair 14, which of the following do the two chromosomes of the pair have in common?
Length, centromere position, staining pattern and traits coded for by their genes
WHich is the voltage across a membrane called?
If one strand of a dna molecule has the sequence of bases 5'ATTGCA3', the other complementary strand would have the sequence
What is the name of the functional group shown in the figure above?
Choose the pair of terms that correctly completes this sentence: Catabolism is to anabolism as ___ is to _____
In addition to ATP, what are the end products of glycolysis?
NADH and pyruvate
Where are the molecules of the electron transport chain found in plant cells?
Thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts
Testosterone functions inside a cell by
Binding with a receptor protein that enters the nucleus and activates specific genes
Apoptosis involves all but which of the following?
Lysis of the cell
Which of the following triggers the cell's passage past G2 checkpoint to mitosis?
A given organism has 46 chromosomes in its karyotype. We can therefore conclude which of the following?
Its gametes must have 23 chromosomes
To visualize and identify meiotic cells at metaphase with a microscope, what would you look for?
Tetrads are aligned at the cell's center
Which of the following is a hydrophobic material?
Based on your knowledge of the polarity of water molecules, the solute molecule depicted here is most likely
Which level of protein structure do the a helix and the B Pleated sheet represent
When you have a severe fever, what rave consequence may occur if the fever is not controlled?
Change in tertiary structure of your enzymes
Starting with citrate which of the following combinations of products would result from three acetyl CoA molecules entering the citric acid cycle (See figure 9.2)
3 ATP, 6 CO2, 9 NADH, and 3 FADH2
Zinc, an essential trace element for most organisms is present in the active site of the enzyme carboxypeptidase, the zinc most likely functions as a(n)
Cofactor necessary for enzyme activity
Which of the following hydrocarbons has a double bond in its carbon skeleton?
When a neuron responds to a particular neurotransmitter by opening dated ion channels the neurotransmitter is serving as which part of the signal pathway?
All of the following checkpoints are similar in which way?
They activate or inactivate other proteins
After the system reaches equilibrium, what changes are observed?
The water level is higher in side A than in Side B
The sodium potassium pump is called an electrogenic pump because it
Contributes to the membrane potential
What kind of molecules pass through a cell membrane most easily
Small and hydrophobic
What is the term used for a protein molecule that assists in the proper folding of the other proteins?
What is the most likely pathway taken by a newly synthesized protein that will be secreted by a cell?
ER, golgi, vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane
The primary function of polysaccharides attached to the glycoproteins and glycolipids of animal membranes is
To mediate cell-to-cell recognition
Which term most precisely describes the cellular process of breaking down large molecules into smaller ones?
The reactions that produce molecular oxygen take place in
Light reactions alone
Why do chromosomes coil during mitosis?
To allow the chromosomes to move without becoming entangled and breaking
Which of the following is the smallest closed system?
When glucose monomers are joined together by glycosidic linkages to form a cellulose polymer, the changes in free energy, total energy and entropy are as follows:
+G, +H, -S
If a DNA sample were composed of 10% thymine, what would be the percentage of guanine?
Which of the following is present in a prokaryotic cell
Which bonds are created during the formation of the primary structure of a protein?
Generation of proton gradients across membranes occurs during
Both photosynthesis and respiration
In the cells of some organisms, mitosis occurs without cytokinesis. This will result in
Cells with more than one nucleus
Which number represents DNA synthesis
How does the sexual life cycle increase the genetic variation in a species?
By allowing crossing over
Reactants capable of interaction to form products in a chemical reaction must first overcome a thermodynamic barrier known as the reactions
White blood cells engulf bacteria through what process?
Which metabolic pathway is common to both fermentation and cellular respiration of a glucose molecule?
Most CO2 from catabolism is released during
The Citric Acid Cycle
Phosphorylation cascades involving a series of protein kinases are useful for cellular signal transduction because
They amplify the original signal manyfold
Even though plants carry on photosynthesis, plant cells still use their mitochondria for oxidation of pyruvate. When and where does this occur?
In all cells all the time
When skeletal muscle cells undergo anaerobic respiration, they become fatigued and painful. This is known to be caused by
Buildup of lactate
How many molecules of water are needed to completely hydrolyze a polymer that is 11 monomers long?
On food packages, to what does the term insoluble fiber refer?
Where do the enzymatic reactions of the Calvin Cycle take place?
Stroma of the chloroplast
Which of the following is a protein synthesized at specific times during the cell cycle that associates with a kinase to form a catalytically active complex?
Which of the following is released by platelets in the vicinity of an injury?
Why do neurons and some other specialized cells divide infrequently?
They have been shunted into G0
The human genome in minimally contained in which of the following?
Every Human Cell
Which of the following is true of a species that has a chromosome number of 2n=16
Each cell has eight homologous pairs
The presence of cholesterol in the plasma membranes of some animals
Enables the membrane to stay fluid more easily when cell temperature drops
Which component is a glycolipid
In the absence of oxygen, yeast cells can obtain energy by fermentation, resulting in the production of
ATP, CO2 and ethanol (ethyl alcohol)
What is a cleavage furrow?
A groove in the plasma membrane between daughter nuclei
Independent assortment of chromosomes is a result of
The random and independent way in which each pair of homologous chromosomes line up at the metaphase plate during meiosis I
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